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Page Title: Convensional Steam Turbines
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Compartment Numbering System
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Condensation
E—Engineering   spaces F—Oil  stowage G—Gasoline   stowage J—JP-5  tanks K—Chemicals  and dangerous materials L—Living  spaces M—Ammunition T—Vertical  access trunks V—Voids W—Water   stowage Q—Spaces  not  other- wise  covered M a i n     p r o p u l s i on spaces;  pump,  genera- tor, and   windlass rooms Fuel oil, diesel oil, and lubricating  oil  tanks Gasoline   tank   com- partments,   cofferdams, trunks, and   pump rooms Aircraft  fuel  stowage Stowage   of   chemicals and semisafe and dan- gerous   materials,   ex- cept   oil   and   gasoline tanks Berthing  and  messing spaces,  medical  and dental   areas,   and passageways Stowage and handling Cofferdam   compart- ments, other  than gasoline;   void   wing compartments Compartments  storing water, including bilge, sump, and peak tanks Ship’s  offices,  laundry rooms,   galleys,   pan- tries, and wiring trunks The  double  letters  AA,  FF,  and  GG  identify spaces  used  to  carry  cargo. PROPULSION  PLANTS All ships require a means of propulsion. Navy ships  use  four  types  of  propulsion  plants, each   with   its   own   advantages   and   disadvan- tages: Conventional  steam  turbines Diesel engines Gas turbines Nuclear  power  plants CONVENTIONAL  STEAM  TURBINES The  substance  that  operates  a  conventional steam turbine plant is steam. The plant produces steam  (generation  phase)  to  drive  the  turbines (expansion  phase).  It  then  condenses  the  steam (condensation  phase)  and  reuses  it  (feed  phase) to  make  steam  again,  as  shown  in  figure  17-3. One  of  the  advantages  of  the  steam  propulsion plant is that it is a high-power system with the ability to propel combatant ships at high speeds. Another advantage is that ships can use it for a variety of auxiliary services, such as laundry and galley  operations  and  hot  water  heaters. Disadvantages  include  its  bulkiness  and  the complication  of  the  system.  It  is  the  slowest  of the   plants   used   as   far   as   preparations   for underway operations. Additionally, it consists of a  relatively  large  number  of  operating  stations, requiring  higher  manning. Lets look at each of these four phases a little closer. Generation Steam  is  generated  in  the  boiler.  Naval propulsion boilers operate at 600 psi or 1,200 psi. A  pressure-temperature  relationship  exists  in  the generation phase. At higher pressures, water must be heated to a higher temperature before the water will boil and produce steam. At 600 psi the boiling temperature  is  489°F.  At  1,200  psi  the  boiling temperature  is  567°F. In  the  pressure  vessel  of  the  boiler,  steam cannot be further heated unless all the water is first  boiled.  Having  some  water  in  the  boiler  is necessary to ensure heat flow and to prevent the boiler  tubes  from  melting. As  steam  is  drawn  from  the  steam  drum,  it first  passes  through  separators  to  remove moisture.  It  then  passes  through  the  superheater, which  further  heats  the  steam  to  a  higher  tem- perature.  Superheated  steam  has  more  energy  per unit  mass  for  conversion  to  mechanical  energy. 17-6

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