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provides   command   and   control   during   ship-to- shore   and   subsequent   operations.   The   LVTR-7 provides  mobile  repair  and  retrieval  facilities  for disabled vehicles. ARTILLERY Marine artillery weapons consist  of  towed  and self-propelled howitzers and self-propelled guns. The   M198   155-mm   towed   howitzer   is   the standard  artillery  weapon  of  the  Marine  Corps. Mounted on a wheeled carriage, it fires a 97-pound high-explosive  (HE)  shell  to  an  effective  range  of 22,000   meters   (30,000   meters   with   a   rocket- assisted    projectile).    It    can    also    fire    white phosphorous,  illumination,  smoke,  antitank  and antipersonnel  mines,  laser-guided,  chemical,  and nuclear rounds. The CH-53E helicopter transports the M198. The Vietnam-era  105-mm  howitzer  remains  in service  with  selected  Regular  and  Reserve  units. Mounted on a wheeled carriage, it fires a 33-pound HE shell to an effective range of 11,400 meters. It can   also   fire   white   phosphorous,   illumination, smoke, and “beehive” (tiny darts used for repelling human-wave attacks) rounds. The 155-mm self-propelled howitzer is mounted on a tank-like body propelled by tracks. It fires a 97-pound HE shell to a  maximum  effective  range of  18,000  meters  (24,000  meters  with  a  rocket- assisted projectile). The   8-inch,   self-propelled   howitzer    is    the Marine  Corps’  most  accurate  artillery  piece.  It fires a 200-pound HE round to an effective range of  about  22,000   meters   (28,000   meters   with   a rocket-assisted projectile). LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLES (LAVs) The Marine Corps began receiving LAVs in the early   1980s.   Currently,   the   Marine   Corps   has three  light  armored  infantry  battalions.  One   is stationed at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, one at Camp   Pendleton,   California,   and   the   other   is deployed in the Western Pacific (WESTPAC). The LAV  can  travel  more  than  70  miles  per  hour.  It contains    mortar;    air    defense;    tube-launched, optically-tracked, wire-command (link-guided) TOW missiles; and 25-mm chain gun variants. MISSILES In  addition  to  conventional  ground  weapons, Marines  have  light  antiaircraft  missile  (LAAM) battalions.   These   battalions   are   organized   and equipped   to   provide   air   defense   for   a   Marine landing  force.  The  LAAM  battalion  is  equipped with  Hawk  surface-to-air  missiles,  medium-  and low-altitude   acquisition   radar,   and   fire   control radar.  These  weapons   systems   provide   defense against low- and medium-altitude air attacks (fig. 14-4). 134.50 Figure 14-4.-In addition to conventional weapons, Marines use surface-to-air missiles for ground defense. 14-7

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