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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Ready Reserve
CHAPTER  15 THE NAVAL RESERVE LEARNING  OBJECTIVES Upon  completion  of  this  chapter,  you  should  be  able  to  do  the  following: 1. Identify the historical foundation of the Naval 4.  Describe  the  training  program  of  the  Naval Reserve. Reserve. 2.  Identify  the  mission  of  the  Naval  Reserve. 5. Describe the requirements for retirement from the  Naval  Reserve. 3.  Identify  the  various  categories  of  naval  re- servists and Naval Reserve units. During  times  of  peace  our  Active  Forces  are sufficient  to  maintain  national  defense.  During armed conflict, however, additional trained forces are  required  to  increase  the  Active  Fleet.  For  such occasions,  the  Naval  Reserve  is  ready. The  United  States  operates  on  a  total  force policy.   The   total   force   includes   all   resources available   to   perform   the   national   defense missions.   It   includes   the   Active   and   Reserve (National Guard and Reserve) component forces; civilians; and   in   some   contingency   plans, appropriate  forces  of  our  allies. The total force within the Navy encompasses all assets, including active-duty members and the ships and aircraft that make up the fleet. It also includes  the  Reserve  Force  and  hardware  that  will increase the fleet and shore establishments in a national  emergency  or  contingency.  Since  Naval Reserve strength is directly related to the Navy’s inventory   of   ships, aircraft,   and   support equipment, it is fully integrated into force strength planning.  Reservists  are  full  partners  in  the  naval establishment with a meaningful role. They serve as  a  source  to  whom  the  Active  Navy  can  turn quickly for added manpower and hardware. Each reservist  has  the  opportunity  to  make  a  real contribution  to  the  Navy’s  mission. HISTORY  OF  THE  NAVAL  RESERVE The  first  use  of  a  Reserve  source  of  naval manpower  took  place  in  1888  when  Massachusetts organized  a  naval  battalion  as  part  of  the  state militia. By 1897 a total of 16 states had organized naval units as part of their state militia. Officers and  men  from  these  organizations  served  with  the Regular Navy during the Spanish-American War. The  state  militia  organizations  sought  assis- tance from the federal government. Agreeing that the states should receive aid, Congress approved legislation  establishing  a  federal  Naval  Reserve  on 3  March  1915.  However,  not  until  19  August 1916, with the prospect of World War I, was the Naval  Reserve  Force  formally  organized. At  the  end  of  World  War  I,  330,000  Naval Reserve  officers  and  personnel  were  on  active duty.  By  the  end  of  World  War  II,  over  three- fourths  of  the  3,220,000  persons  on  active  duty in the Navy were members of the Naval Reserve. MISSION  OF  THE  NAVAL RESERVE The  Naval  Reserve’s  primary  mission  is  to provide   trained   personnel   to   supplement   the Active Force in war, national emergency, or when 15-1

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