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Soviet OSCAR-I Submarine
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Officer Personnel -Continued
continuous praise and commendation from Soviet public leaders and the press. Even more tantalizing to  the  average  Soviet  citizen,  for  whom  foreign travel is basically impossible, is the opportunity navy  personnel  have  to  see  the  world. Enlisted   men   are   either   2-year   or   3-year draftees; the latter term of service is required if the  draftee  is  assigned  sea  duty.  The  Soviet  Union does  not  draft  women  for  military  service.  They are used in clerical and support positions. Soviet women are not considered to be an integral part of  the  armed  services  as  are  the  service  women of  the  United  States. Of approximately 443,000 uniformed person- nel of the Soviet navy, about 169,000 serve afloat and 70,000 are attached to naval aviation units. In  addition  to  the  18,000-man  naval  infantry force,   another   14,000   are   assigned   to   coastal defense  activities.  About  46,000  are  engaged  in various stages of training, and 126,000 are used to  provide  shore  support.  Additionally,  a  large number of civilians, perhaps as many as 30,000, form  the  crews  of  the  majority  of  Soviet  naval auxiliary ships. Enlisted  Personnel The  enlisted  man  of  the  Soviet  navy  is  a draftee  with  limited  training  and  little  career inclination.  Draftees  are  drawn  from  all  the  16 republics  within  the  USSR.  Often  those  from Asian republics speak little Russian. Since draftees are inducted into the services twice a year, this means  that  every  6  months  about  15  percent of  the  naval  enlisted  strength  is  replaced  by recruits. The  new  inductees  undergo  a  9-week  basic training  program,  after  which  they  are  either sent   to   a   specialist   school   or   directly   to   a duty  assignment.  A  small  number  of  recruits that  have  previously  completed  a  military specialist  preparation  course  are  sent  directly to  sea  duty  from  basic  training.  Those  judged physically   or   intellectually   substandard   are assigned   to   shore   duty   (as   librarians,   clerks, and  so  on).  Approximately  75  percent  of  the personnel  entering  the  navy  undergo  specialist training, after which they receive their first ship- board  assignment. Soviet  technical  training  lasts  from  4  to  6 months.  Specialists  graduate  with  an  apparent understanding  of  the  theoretical  complexities  of their own specialty but with little practical train- ing. Consequently, enlisted personnel receive the more significant and practical training after they arrive  on  board  ship. Once aboard, these personnel are assigned to the   more   senior   sailors   who,   along   with   the officers and warrant officers in their department, train them as replacements. The new specialists then begin their study for a class specialist rating of Master 1, 2, or 3. If a sailor passes the Master 3  specialist  test,  fulfills  certain  requirements  of the  Party  Youth  Organization  (Komsomof),  and has  no  disciplinary  violations,  he  will  be  rated “outstanding” by the ship’s captain. The number and  class  of  specialists  and  the  number  rated outstanding are used as a measure in evaluating a   ship’s   performance.   Over   90   percent   of   all seamen are rated Master 3 specialists by the end of  their  first  tour  of  duty. The ability of the Soviet specialist is limited by inadequate school instruction and testing and the  lack  of  facilities  for  intensive  shipboard  on- the-job training. Because of these shortcomings, the  specialist  is  only  able  to  perform  routine maintenance and general operation of a limited range of equipment. The Soviets have alleviated some of these shortcomings by assembling most shipboard equipment using standard components and  modules. Officer Personnel The   Soviet   navy   faces   a   chronic   shortage of  senior  enlisted  personnel.  The  reenlistment rate  averages  under  10  percent,  in  part  be- cause   of   the   national   requirement   that   all males  must  serve  on  active  duty  in  the  Soviet armed  forces.  In  an  effort  to  overcome  this shortage  and  to  upgrade  the  status  of  a  career serviceman,   the   Soviet   navy   introduced   the rank   of   warrant   officer   (michman)  in   1971. At  completion  of  compulsory  service,  the  Soviet sailor, if considered capable, is offered additional specialist  and  military  training  in  a  2-year warrant officer school. In return he must reenlist for  a  5-year  period,  which  includes  the  time  spent in  schooling. 1-18

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