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(2) buys, sells, trades, or in any way deals in or disposes of captured or  abandoned  property,  whereby  he receives   or   expects   any   profit, benefit, or advantage to himself or another  directly  or  indirectly  con- nected  with  himself;  or (3)  engages  in  looting  or  pil- laging; shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Immediately  upon  its  capture  from  the  enemy, public  property  becomes  the  property  of  the United States. Persons subject to military law have an immediate duty to take those steps within their power  and  functions  to  secure  such  property  to the service of the United States. They then have the  duty  to  protect  that  property  from  destruc- tion  or  loss. Art. 104. Aiding the Enemy Any  person  who— (1) aids, or attempts to aid, the enemy  with  arms,  ammunition, supplies, money or other things; or (2)   without   proper   authority, knowingly  harbors  or  protects  or gives   intelligence   to,   or   com- municates  or  corresponds  with  or holds  any  intercourse  with  the enemy,  either  directly  or  indirectly; shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial or military commission may  direct. This article applies to all persons whether or not they are otherwise subject to military law. “Enemy” denotes  citizens  as  well  as  members  of  military organizations. All the citizens of hostile nations, as  well  as  their  government,  are  our  enemies. Art. 105. Misconduct as Prisoner Misconduct  covers  unauthorized  conduct  by a prisoner of war that tends to improve his or her condition  to  the  detriment  of  other  prisoners. Such acts may be the reporting of plans to escape or  the  reporting  of  secret  caches  of  food,  equip- ment,  or  arms.  The  acts  must  be  related  to  the captors  and  tend  to  have  the  probable  effect  of bestowing upon the accused some favor with, or advantage   from,   the   captors.   The   act   of   the accused  must  be  contrary  to  law,  custom,  or regulation. For example, the escape of a prisoner might  result  in  closer  confinement  or  other measures against fellow prisoners still in the hands of  the  enemy.  Such  escape,  however,  is  not  an offense  under  this  article,  as  escape  from  the enemy  is  regarded  as  authorized  by  custom. Art. 106. Spies Any person who in time of war is found lurking  as  a  spy  or  acting  as  a  spy  in  or about any place, vessel, or aircraft, within the  control  or  jurisdiction  of  any  of  the armed forces, or in or about any shipyard, any manufacturing or industrial plant, or any other place or institution engaged in work in aid of the prosecution of the war by the United States, or elsewhere, shall be  tried  by  a  general  court-martial  or  by a  military  commission  and  on  conviction shall  be  punished  by  death. The   words   “any   person”   bring   within   the jurisdiction  of  courts-martial  and  military  com- missions  all  persons  of  whatever  nationality  or status  who  commit  the  offense  of  spying. Art. 107. False Official Statements Any  person  subject  to  this  code  who, with  intent  to  deceive,  signs  any  false record, return, regulation, order, or other official  document,  knowing  it  to  be  false, or  makes  any  other  false  official  statement knowing it to be false, shall be punished as  a  court-martial  may  direct. Several articles of the  UCMJ provide for the punishment  of  untruths:  articles  83  and  84 (Fraudulent  and  unlawful  enlistment,  appoint- ment,  or  separation),  article  107  (False  official statements), article 131 (Perjury), and article 132 (Fraud).  You  can  see  how  highly  truth  is  regarded in the military service. A  statement,  whether  oral  or  in  writing,  is official when it is made pursuant to regulations. A statement is also official when made in response to a request or question from one’s commanding officer or a person acting under the commanding officer’s   authority. Official   statements   thus include  all  those  made  in  the  line  of  duty. Art.  108.  Military  Property  of  the  United States—Loss, Damage, Destruction, or  Wrongful  Disposition Any  person  subject  to  this  code  who, without  proper  authority— (1) sells or otherwise disposes of; 6-18

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