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Chapter 20 Naval Weapons Systems
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Close-In Weapon System (CIWS)
at  some  of  the  systems  and  equipment  the  Navy uses. GUNS The  gun  is  the  Navy’s  oldest  and  most  fre- quently    used    piece    of    ordnance    equipment. Modern improvements in the construction of guns and  ammunition  have  revolutionized  gunnery  by increasing  the  destructive  power  and  maximum range  of  this  weapon.  During  the  revolutionary war,  American  ships  fought   at   ranges   of   only several hundred yards. Using inaccurate cast-iron guns  without  sights,  they  threw  solid  shots  that usually   failed   to   penetrate.   Modern   guns   hurl explosive   shells   that   may   weigh   up   to   2,700 pounds.  The  range  of  the  largest  (16-inch)  gun now  in  service  exceeds  24  miles.  This  gun   can destroy a ship or some other target with only one of its projectiles. Naval   guns,   exclusive   of   small   arms,   are classified  according  to  size,  type  of  ammunition used, and method of fire. Large  guns  are  usually  mounted  in  turrets, boxlike  structures  of  armor  enclosing  the  breech end of two or three guns. The turret rotates within and  on  top  of  a  barbette,  a  fixed  circular  tube  of armor extending down to the armored decks. The barbette encloses the ammunition-handling rooms, hoists, and gun-laying machinery of the turret. Smaller  guns  are  housed  in  two  types  of  gun mounts:    open    and    closed.    The    latter    type resembles a turret but does not have  an  armored barbette. The mounts or turrets of all naval guns except the   smallest   are   trained   (rotated   in   the   deck plane),  and  the  guns  are  elevated  by  electric  or electric-hydraulic power drives. The power drives, which  are  usually  automatic,  move  the  gun  to  a position designated by a fire control system. The following sections  briefly  describe  some  of the gunnery systems used by the Navy. 16"/50 The   16"/50   turret-mounted   gun    is   the   only major-caliber weapon  in  the  fleet  today.  Installed only   on   battleships,   it   can   fire   a   2,700-pound projectile a distance of 24 miles. Although it has a low firing rate (2 rounds per minute), the 16" projectile is quite destructive. 5"/54 The 5"/54 Mk 42 is an automatic dual-purpose (DP) gun carried by most frigates (FFs), destroyers (DDs),  and  guided-missile  cruisers  (CGs)  built  in the  1950s  and  1960s.  Depending  on  the  class  of ship,  the  weapons  maybe  located  on  one,  two,  or three  single  mounts.  The  gun  has    an  effective range of 24,500 yards and fires 70-pound shells at a rate of 32 rounds per minute. The  Mk  45  (fig.  20-1)  provides  destroyers  and large   ships   with   an   all-weather   capability   for support of amphibious operations. It also provides them with an all-weather capability for delivery of rapid  and  accurate  naval  gunfire  against  surface craft, aircraft, and shore targets.  It  is  a  shielded, single-barrel,  fully  automatic gun  that  fires  5"/54 semifixed  ammunition.  Total  installation  weight varies from 49,000 to 54,000 pounds, depending on the installation configuration. The DD-963, DDG- 993, LHA-1, CGN-36, 134.202 Figure 20-1.-Mk 45 5"/54. 20-2

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