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The Naval Base at Norfolk, Virginia
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Security -Continued
recommended  the  creation  of  a  “law  specialist” category  in  the  restricted  line.  The  report concluded  that  this  category  would  benefit  the Navy  more  than  the  creation  of  a  JAG  corps. Authorized   to   procure   300   lawyers   in   June 1946,  the  Navy  began  the  Law  Specialist  Pro- gram. Until  late  1967  many  unsuccessful  attempts  to establish a JAG Corps were made. At that time a  subcommittee  of  the  House  Armed  Services Committee scheduled a hearing on provisions for the  establishment  of  a  JAG  Corps  in  the  Navy. The  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the  Navy  pre- sented convincing testimony at the hearing. His testimony  showed  that  membership  in  a  legal corps  would  give  the  Navy  lawyer  a  sense  of professional identity and provide a potent career incentive. The proposed legislation made the full course from subcommittee hearings through a receptive Congress to final passage within a little more than 2  months.  On  8  December  1967  President  Johnson signed Public Law 90-179, which established the JAG  Corps  as  a  staff  corps  of  the  Navy. Military justice is only one of the many areas of responsibility y handled by Navy lawyers. Judge advocates  provide  legal  advice  in  the  fields  of international law, admiralty, administrative law, claims  litigation,  and  investigations.  They  also provide legal services to service members and their dependents  in  areas  such  as  taxation,  promotions, and retirement. Activity in these fields and in military justice is  constantly  expanding  and  changing.  The  largest change,  concerning  expanded  rights  to  military people,  occurred  with  passage  of  the  Military Justice Act of 1968. This act expanded the rights of  the  accused”  to  receive  legal  counsel  before special  courts-martial.  It  also  inaugurated  the  use of military judges to preside over special courts- martial. JAG  Corps  members  serve  in  the  offices  of the  Secretary  of  Defense;  Secretary  of  the Navy;  Chief  of  Naval  Operations;  and  the  Chief of  Naval  Personnel.  Other  offices  in  which  they serve include the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Chief   of   Naval   Research,   Comptroller   of   the Navy,  and  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff. Additionally, Judge advocates are assigned to the staffs of the Navy’s various area coordinators to handle legal work generated within that area. Locally,  they  serve  on  the  staffs  of  fleet,  force, and type commanders and at many naval bases, stations,  and  schools. Since  1969  the  JAG  Corps  has  been  organized into  four  basic  components:  the  Office  of  the Judge Advocate General, staff and activity judge advocates,  law  centers,  and  a  training  component. Under  that  organizational  structure,  the  corps experienced  problems  in  personnel  distribution, uniformity  of  funding  and  support,  and  stan- dardization   of   operations.   These   problems impeded the corps’ efforts to give the best service it  could  provide. Following an extensive study of the problems, the Naval Legal Service was established in 1973. Its   mission   was   to   control   the   legal   services program  and  provide  command  direction  for  all Naval  Legal  Service  activities  and  resources assigned. It was also to perform other functions or  tasks  related  to  the  Naval  Legal  Service  as directed   by   the   Chief   of   Naval   Operations. Headquartered  in  Washington,  the  Naval  Legal Service was authorized 18 offices and 15 branch offices  throughout  the  world. Technically, Naval Legal Service offices serve as legal service centers in areas that have a major concentration  of  naval  activities.  Within  the  limits of  strength  authorizations,  these  offices  provide a  full  array  of  legal  services  to  commands  that have   no   judge   advocate   assigned.   A   primary purpose of the establishment of the Naval Legal Service  was  to  bring  all  trial  and  defense  counsels under the direct authority of the Judge Advocate General. This step made the Naval Legal Service independent   of   court-martial   convening authorities. Even though it is a relatively new organization, the  Navy  JAG  Corps  continues  to  expand.  The passage   of   legislation   by   Congress   and   the increased need for legal services by Navy members result  in  increased  responsibilities  for  the  JAG Corps. SECURITY Although not in the same vein as some of the supporting   elements   previously   discussed,   the Navy’s  Security  program  helps  to  prevent  the disclosure  of  sensitive  information.  It  deserves careful  attention  by  all  naval  personnel. The  word  security,  like  many  other  words, has several meanings. Expressed simply, for naval purposes,  SECURITY  =  PROTECTING  CLAS- SIFIED  INFORMATION.  Security  requires active  Navy  support  of  Presidential  Executive Order  12356  governing  classifying  and  safe- guarding  national  security  information. 13-8

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