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Figure  14-2.-Emblem  of  the  U.S.  Marine  Corps. Washington  in  1801.  It  became  known  as  “the President’s  own”  during  the  early  years  of  the 19th  century,  a  title  it  holds  today. Back  when  marines  wore  leather  stocks  or collars to protect themselves from the slash of an enemy  sword  or  cutlass,  they  were  given  the nickname leatherneck. During World War I, after the  fourth  Marine  brigade  distinguished  itself during  action  at  Belleau  Wood,  the  Germans  were said   to   have   referred   to   the   marines   as teufelshunden  (devil  dogs). MARINE  CORPS  FUNCTION The  primary  functions  of  the  Marine  Corps are  as  follows: To   organize,   train,   equip,   and   provide Fleet   Marine   Forces,   together   with supporting   air   components,   for   service with the Navy fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and for the con- duct  of  such  land  operations  as  may  be essential  to  the  prosecution  of  a  naval campaign To provide detachments and organizations for  service  on  armed  vessels  of  the  Navy To  provide  security  detachments  for  the protection  of  naval  property  at  naval stations and bases To  develop  doctrines,  tactics,  techniques, and  equipment  employed  by  landing  forces in  amphibious  operations To  develop  the  doctrines  and  procedures for  joint  amphibious  operations The National Security Act of 1947 established the roles and missions of the United States Marine Corps.  Today  the  Marine  Corps  stands  ready  to carry out a wide variety of missions that higher authority  may  assign.  In  addition  to  deploying forces  for  amphibious  operations,  Marines  train foreign  military  forces  and  provide  security  for diplomatic  posts  worldwide. MARINE   CORPS   ORGANIZATION The  U.S.  Marine  Corps  consists  of  not  less than  three  combat  divisions  and  three  aircraft wings, and such land combat, aviation, and other services  as  necessary  to  support  them. The   Commandant   of   the   Marine   Corps (CMC)  is  a  Chief  of  Service  and  a  permanent member  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff.  The  CMC is  responsible  for  the  administration,  discipline, internal   organization,   training,   efficiency, readiness,  and  total  performance  of  the  Marine Corps.  The  CMC  also  has  responsibility  for  the operation of the Marine Corps’ material support system.  When  performing  these  functions,  the Commandant   is   responsible   directly   to   the Secretary of the Navy; the CMC is not a part of the  command  structure  of  the  Chief  of  Naval Operations   (CNO).   A   close   cooperative relationship  exists,  however,  between  the  CNO, as  the  senior  military  officer  of  the  Department of  the  Navy,  and  the  CMC. FLEET MARINE FORCE (FMF) The  Fleet  Marine  Force  (FMF),  which  has been in existence since 1933, comprises the main fighting   strength   of   Marines   assigned   to   the operating forces of the Navy. The FMF includes all  air  and  ground  tactical  units  of  the  Marine Corps. It is organized into two commands: Fleet Marine  Force  Atlantic  and  Fleet  Marine  Force Pacific. The primary mission of the FMF is to conduct overseas  amphibious  operations  for  the  seizure and defense of advanced bases as part of a naval campaign. The nature of this mission, therefore, requires that the FMF maintain a very high state 14-3

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