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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Campaign and Service Awards
MEDALS   AND   AWARDS According   to   legend,   Alexander   the   Great began   the   custom   of   awarding   medals   for heroism  on  the  battlefield  more  than  2,000 years  ago.  Thus,  a  historic  precedent  exists for medals worn by military personnel the world over.  The  bewildering  array  of  ribbons  on  the left  breast  of  the  dress  uniform  of  veterans often  seems  quite  puzzling  to  the  newcomer  in the  Navy.  These  distinctive  ribbons  represent medals   that   are   too   cumbersome   to   be   worn at  all  times.  Personnel  wear  them  in  horizontal rows   of   three   each,   arranged   in   order   of precedence   from   the   center   of   the   body   to the  left  shoulder  and  from  top  row  to  bottom row. Fundamentally, the military presents decora- tions  and  awards  for  the  purpose  of  publicly recognizing  and  rewarding  its  personnel  for  the following  acts  or  services: Extraordinary  performance  of  duty Exceptionally  meritorious  service Conspicuously  outstanding  acts  of  heroism Other  acts  or  services  beyond  that  normally expected Acts  or  services  that  distinguish  the  individual or  unit  among  those  performing  similar  acts or services TYPES  OF  MEDALS  AND  AWARDS An award is  an  all-inclusive  term  covering  any decoration,  medal,  badge,  ribbon,  or  an  attach- ment  thereof  bestowed  on  an  individual. A unit award is an award made to an operating unit and worn only by members of that unit who participated  in  the  cited  action. A service  award  is  an  award  made  to  those persons  who  have  participated  in  designated  wars, campaigns,  expeditions,  and  so  forth,  or  who  have fulfilled, in a creditable manner, specified service requirements. A  decoration   is  an  award  bestowed  for  a specific  act  of  gallantry  or  meritorious  service. A medal is an award presented to an individual for  performance  of  certain  duties,  acts,  or services. It consists of a suspension ribbon, made of   distinctive   colors,   from   which   a   medallion hangs. A miniature   medal   is  a  replica  of  a  large medal,  made  to  a  scale  one-half  of  the  original size. A  badge  is   an   award   for   some   special proficiency   apart   from   the   duties   of   the individual’s   grade   or   rate.   It   consists   of   a medallion  hung  from  a  bar  or  from  bars. A ribbon  or ribbon  bar  consists  of  a  portion of the suspension ribbon of a medal and is worn instead  of  the  medal.  The  dimensions  of  all ribbons  are  1  3/8  inches  by  3/8  inch. An attachment  is any appurtenance, such as a  star,  clasp,  or  device,  worn  on  the  suspension ribbon of a medal or on the ribbon (ribbon bar). ORDER  OF  PRECEDENCE Navy   personnel   wear   awards   in   a   set precedence according to the following categories: 1.  Military  decorations 2.  Unit  awards 3.   Nonmilitary   decorations 4.  Campaign  and  service  awards 5.  Foreign  decorations,  non-U.S.  awards, foreign  unit  awards,  and  foreign  service awards 6.  Marksmanship  awards 7.   Awards   of   military   societies   and   other organizations Military Decorations The  following  list  contains  the  military  decora- tions, in their order of precedence, authorized for wear  on  the  naval  uniform: Medal  of  Honor Navy  Cross Defense  Distinguished  Service  Medal* Distinguished Service Medal 9-20

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