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Treaties and Pacts of which the United States is a Member
The  warrant  officer  serves  as  the  principal interface between officer and enlisted personnel. In  this  capacity  the  warrant  officer  has  more responsibilities  than  a  senior  petty  officer.  As  a result of more extensive training and experience, the  warrant  officer  can  relieve  the  officers  of  some of   the   more   technical   duties   the   enlisted person  is  not  qualified  to  perform.  Benefits  in- crease considerably because pay, privileges, and leave  offered  to  the  warrant  officer  approach those   of   an   officer.   In   addition,   the   warrant officer has the opportunity to achieve promotion to  an  officer  rank  after  a  number  of  years  in service. The  regular  sea-going  Soviet  naval  officer  is a  career  volunteer  who  has  been  carefully  selected and is well trained and highly specialized. More often than not, the Soviet naval officer is a relative of  a  party  official  or  another  naval  officer. A  majority  of  regular  naval  officers  are  now drawn  from  specialized  naval  schools.  A  small number  begin  as  reservists  after  graduation from  civilian  universities,  and  a  few  others  are promoted from the warrant officer ranks. A youth normally  starts  a  naval  career  after  a  vigorous selection program as a cadet at one of 11 higher naval schools. The course of study is intense and lasts  5  years,  with  the  graduates  receiving  a national  engineering  diploma  and  the  rank  of lieutenant. Some Soviet officers begin their naval careers at  about  the  age  of  15  upon  entering  the Nakhimov naval school system. They then go into a  higher  naval  educational  institution  upon graduation  from  the  Nakhimov  school.  Upon graduation, regular officers are assigned to a ship for  duty  in  the  department  that  corresponds  to their  specialties  (navigation,  engineering,  ASW, and  so  on).  New  officers  usually  spend  the  first 3 to 6 years of their career in the same depart- ment aboard the same ship, or at least in the same class of ship. During this period new officers earn a   classification   as   a   specialist   in   a   technical pursuit. They must pass examinations to perform in  various  capacities  as  they  progress  through positions equivalent to assistant division officers, assistant   department   heads,   and   department heads. Soviet naval officers are managers as well as technical specialists. The navy expects them to be able to do virtually everything their subordinates can  do.  In  addition  the  navy  expects  its  officers to  instruct  subordinates  in  their  duties  and  to take  care  of  their   “ideological  well  being.” Because of the general low level of technical com- petence   of   enlisted   personnel,   the   Soviet officer  tends  “to  do  everything,”  even  the  most routine  maintenance.  Loyal  party  members  give junior   officers   quite   a   heavy   work   load. Complaints  are  frequent;  yet,  in  spite  of  the complaints,  the  typical  Soviet  officer  appears  to fulfill  these  duties  adequately. Several   major   deficiencies   may   be   clearly discerned about the education and experience of Soviet  naval  officers.  They  spend  the  first  part of their career as a specialist in a very narrow field, restricted to one department in one class of ship. As a result, junior officers lack the needed broad experience   and   versatility   to   function   outside their   specific   field.   Often   only   upon   selection as  executive  officer  do  they  begin  to  develop the  broader  experience  necessary  for  more senior  posts.  The  Soviet  navy  places  strong emphasis   on   collective   thinking   and   party- enforced  discipline.  Because  of  this  emphasis, Soviet   junior   officers   often   lack   personal initiative, independent ideas, and the willingness to take responsibility—leadership characteristics that  are  necessary  for  command.  However,  by virtue   of   their   varied   positions,   education, and   training   from   midcareer   onward,   officers finally  selected  for  flag  rank  are  both  educated and  experienced. The  base  pay  for  Soviet  officers  initially appears nominal. Taken in combination with the total allowances and benefits that a Soviet military officer accrues, the real income is substantial. For example,  naval  officers  are  given  significant additional  pay  for  service  in  northern  areas,  for service in submarines and aircraft, for sea duty, and for command. The prestigious and privileged class of Soviet military officers receive extensive benefits, according to rank, well beyond those of the average citizen. INTERNATIONAL   TIES The United States and the Soviet Union are without doubt the major sea powers of the world 1-19

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