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Conviction of Lesser Included Offense
court,  prepares  the  record  of  proceedings.  The duties of the trial counsel might be compared to those of a civil district attorney. The prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt the guilt of  the  accused  for  each  offense  charged.  Of course, such burden of proof is relieved by a plea of guilty. The many duties of the trial counsel vary widely beginning at the time of assignment to the trial. The duties change throughout the prepara- tion for trial, the trial itself, and the preparation and  disposition  of  the  record  of  trial. All   accused   persons   have   the   right   to   be represented  before  special  and  general  courts- martial by defense counsel. This counsel may be a   civilian   or   military   lawyer   selected   by   the accused  or  may  be  a  defense  counsel  appointed by the convening authority. If a civilian counsel is  selected,  the  accused  must  pay  the  counsel’s expenses. If the accused prefers to select counsel, the detailed counsel and assistant counsel act as associate counsel if the accused so desires; other- wise,  they  may  be  excused. as Some of the duties of the defense counsel are follows: To advise the accused of the right to have enlisted  membership  on  the  court To  explain  the  meaning  and  effect  of  a guilty  plea,  if  appropriate •  To  advise  the  accused  of  the  right  to introduce evidence; to testify or to remain silent;  if  after  findings  of  guilty  are  an- nounced,  to  make  an  unsworn  statement and to introduce evidence as to matters in extenuation and mitigation; and to assert any  proper  defense  or  objection Art. 55. Cruel and Unusual Punishments Pro- hibited This  article  prohibits  any  cruel  or  unusual punishment.   In   particular,   courts-martial   are forbidden to award sentences that include whip- ping,  branding,  marking,  or  tattooing  the  body. The use of irons is also prohibited, except for the purpose  of  safe  custody. PUNITIVE  ARTICLES  OF  THE  UCMJ The punitive articles of the  UCMJ  are  those numbered 77 through 134. They are the laws of Congress telling you what you must do and must not  do,  under  pain  of  punishment. What  about  civil  laws?  Can  you  be  given military  punishment  for  nonmilitary  offenses? Yes,   you   can.   For   example,   the   only   U C M J regulations against drunkenness are for drunken driving  and  being  drunk  on  duty.  Many  civilian communities,  though,  have  laws  against  drunken- ness in public. If you are found guilty in civil court and spend time in jail for being drunk in public, the  Navy  can  try  you  for  being  absent  without leave (UCMJ, article 86) and for bringing discredit upon  the  Navy  (UCMJ,  article   134). If  you  willfully  refuse  to  pay  just  debts,  you will be warned to pay them by your commanding officer.  Continued  failure  to  pay  your  debts  can lead to an undesirable type of discharge. The Navy has no use for people who do not exhibit integrity and honesty. On the other hand, if you are being gouged  by  unscrupulous  dealers,  see  your  legal officer  for  assistance. The punitive articles that follow are those you are required to know. If you have any questions about their meaning, ask your division officer for guidance. Art. 77. Principals The mere fact that a person is at the scene of a crime does not make the person a principal. To be a principal of a crime, the person must be guilty of an intent to aid or encourage the persons who committed  the  crime. A  person  who  witnesses  a  crime  can  be  a principal. Evidence must show the witness had a duty  to  interfere  and  the  witness’s  noninterference was  intended  to  operate  and  did  operate  to encourage  or  protect  the  perpetrator. A person maybe a principal even though not at the scene of the crime if he or she commanded, advised,  or  obtained  another  person  to  commit an  offense. Art. 78. Accessory After the Fact Any  person  subject  to  this  code  who, knowing  that  an  offense  punishable  by  this code  has  been  committed,  receives,  com- forts,  or  assists  the  offender  in  order  to hinder or prevent his apprehension, trial, or punishment shall be punished as a court- martial  may  direct. A  person  who  voluntarily  gives  an  escaped prisoner  provisions  that  permit  him  or  her  to 6-11

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