The misconception of intelligence as a mysteri-
ous, glamorous, and hazardous undertaking has
been derived principally from two sources. The
first has been its cloak and dagger treatment
in popular literature; the second has been the
natural reluctance of governments to disclose the
inner workings oft heir intelligence organizations.
Because of the critical nature of intelligence work,
governments have surrounded this activity with
the strictest of security regulations. Thus a void
has been created in the publics image of
intelligence work that has been filled by fictional
While intelligence work does have its exciting
moments, properly understood it is very similar
to any other military staff function. Generally,
it is knowledge upon which a course of action may
be safely based. In its entirety, it is a vast and
complex grouping of information covering a wide
range of subjects. It includes closely interrelated
subjects such as geography, transportation, tele-
communications, sociological factors, political
conditions, economic conditions, armed forces,
technical developments, and biographical data.
Intelligence workers can make a valid estimate
of a situation only by considering each in its
relation to the others.
Since intelligence activities have three basic
purposes, they are divided into three functional
strategic intelligence, operational
intelligence, and counterintelligence.
Strategic intelligence is used mainly by top
echelons of command and top-level leaders in
government as the basis for national planning and
policy. That is, they use it in reaching broad
decisions affecting the long-range security and
welfare of a nation.
Operational intelligence helps the local
commander decide what personnel and material
to use against an adversary. Local commanders
may use some of the strategic intelligence
information for operational purposes. However,
when executing a planned mission, local
commanders require much more detail than
strategic (long-range) planners.
Counterintelligence is designed to destroy the
effectiveness of the intelligence efforts of foreign
nations. For a nation to actively collect foreign
intelligence about actual or potential enemies is
not enough. A nation must also protect its own
intelligence information from the prying eyes of
other powers. Foreign intelligence is actively at
The term Naval Intelligence, when capitalized,
refers to the organization, under the Commander,
Naval Intelligence Command, responsible for
carrying out the intelligence mission of the Navy.
When not capitalized, the term naval intelligence
refers to the material obtained, processed, and
dispersed to appropriate naval authority.
A distinction exists between information and
intelligence. Information is the raw material and
intelligence is the finished product. Information
becomes intelligence after it is evaluated.
In the United States Navy, the Chief of Naval
Operations (CNO) supervises the intelligence
function while the Director of Naval Intelligence
(DNI) directs the total effort. The DNI carries out
the responsibilities of the CNO regarding
intelligence, cryptology, and security matters. The
DNI is the principal staff adviser to the Secretary
of the Navy and the CNO concerning plans,
programming, and policy matters involving naval
intelligence. The DNI also assists and advises the
CNO in exercising command over the Naval
Intelligence Command, the Naval Investigative
Service, and the Naval Security Group Command.
The Office of Naval Intelligence maintains a
relatively small staff to guide and support the
functions of its headquarters. The Commander,
Naval Intelligence Command (COMNAVINT-
COM), controls the major portion of the func-
tions of program management and intelligence
collection, production, and dissemination.
COMNAVINTCOM also serves as the Deputy
Director of Naval Intelligence (DDNI) for
Intelligence Production (OP-092D). The mission
of COMNAVINTCOM is to ensure the Depart-
ment of the Navy fulfills its security and
intelligence requirements and responsibilities.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Because of the personnel, money, and
materials involved, the research and development
effort in the Department of Defense (DOD) and
its military branches is big business. The scientific
and military strength of the United States depends
heavily on the success of a comprehensive research
DOD manages the research and development
of all major military hardware/weapons systems.
To a lesser degree, it manages scientific study in
fields related to long-term national security needs.
Fields of study include the engineering, environ-
mental, biological-medical, and behavioral social
sciences. DOD currently authorizes about $40
billion for research, development, test, and