S-3A VIKING. The S-3A Viking is a carrier-
based, subsonic, all-weather, long-range, high-
endurance, turbofan-powered aircraft. It can
locate and destroy enemy submarines, including
running submarines. The S-3A operates primarily
in the middle and outer carrier battle group anti-
submarine warfare (ASW) zones with other ASW
unitssurface, airborne, and subsurface. It also
can operate independently or in tandem with its
long-range, land-based ASW partner, the P-3
Orion. Weapons carried by the S-3A include
various combinations of torpedoes, depth charges,
missiles, rockets, and special weapons.
The aerodynamics of rotary-wing aircraft are
considerably more complex than those of fixed-
wing aircraft. A helicopter essentially consists of
a fuselage, a main rotor or rotors, and often a
tail rotor. The fuselage, as in fixed-wing craft,
contains the cockpit and cabin.
The main rotor is the approximate equivalent
of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft; each rotor
blade is an airfoil, like a wing. The rotation of
the main rotor assembly creates a flow of air over
the blades that generates lift. The aerodynamic
forces on the rotor lift the helicopter into the air;
it is not pushed up by the downwash. Some
helicopters have twin rotors in tandem at either
end of the fuselage. Most have a single, main rotor
with a tail rotor mounted at right angles. A few
have tandem intermeshing rotors.
The tail rotor (on helicopters that have one)
provides directional control and stability. It is
mounted at right angles to the main rotor to
counteract the torque of that system. By varying
the pitch of the tail rotor blades, the pilot
controls yaw. By effectively tilting the entire main
rotor, the pilot determines the pitch and roll. By
simultaneously increasing the pitch on all blades
on the main rotor, the pilot causes the helicopter
to climb. (The pitch is essentially how large a bite
of air the blades take, as distinct from aircraft
A transmission, which may be disengaged,
connects the helicopter engines to the rotor
shaft(s). That permits operation of the engine(s)
on the ground without engagement of the rotor
system and a mode of flight known as auto-
rotation. If the engines should stop while in flight,
the pilot can disengage the transmission; the
freewheeling action of the rotor will then allow
a slower descent.
Since World War II, rotary-wing aircraft have
become an indispensable part of naval warfare.
Their applications seem limitlessASW; pilot
rescue; transfer of supplies, mail, and personnel
within dispersed forces; amphibious warfare;
evacuation of wounded; counterinsurgency;
minesweeping; and others. Representative types
are shown in figure 12-2.
The Seasprite is a ship-based antisubmarine
warfare (ASW) and antiship surveillance and
targeting (ASST) helicopter. The SH-2F is
equipped with a search radar, electronic support
measures, magnetic anomaly detectors, and an
acoustic data link. The helicopter also carries
active and passive sonobuoys.
The prototype Seasprite flew for the first
time in 1959. Since then, many versions have
been produced for the Navy under its light
airborne multipurpose system (LAMPS) program
to provide helicopters for ASW and ASST
SH-3H Sea King
The SH-3H is a twin-engine, all-weather, ship-
based ASW helicopter. It is equipped with
variable depth sonar, sonobuoys, data link, chaff,
and a tactical navigation system.
The first version of this workhorse ASW
helicopter was flown more than 20 years ago.
The current model is equipped with sonar, active
and passive sonar buoys, and magnetic anomaly
The Sea King, also used by some squadrons
for search and rescue missions, is being replaced
by the SH-60F Seahawk.
UH-46/CH-46 Sea Knight
The Sea Knight is another example of a
durable and versatile aircraft that still provides
valuable service more than two decades after its
first flight. Both the Navy and the Marine Corps
have flown various versions of it. The Navy has
used the UH/CH-46 for vertical replenishment,
and the Marine Corps has used the CH-46 for
troop transport. Both the Navy and Marine Corps
have used the CH-46 for search and rescue (SAR).
The Sea Knight can carry approximately 6,000
pounds of cargo in a sling beneath the fuselage.
The CH-46E has been modified with much more
powerful engines than earlier Navy and Marine