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Research and Development
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Underwater Weapons and Underwater Weapons Systems
At the top of the Navy RDT&E organization, the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  exerts  policy  control. The  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Navy  for  Research, Engineering,  and  Systems  (ASN/RE&S)  is  re- sponsible   to   SECNAV   for   management   and control   of   Navy   RDT&E   matters,   including monetary   appropriations. The Chief of Naval Research, who heads the Office  of  the  Chief  of  Naval  Research  (OCNR), is  a  principal  adviser  to  the  ASN/RE&S.  The OCNR   consists   of   two   offices:   the   Office   of Naval  Research  (ONR)  and  the  Office  of  Naval Technology  (ONT).  Responsible  for  the  basic research  programs  of  the  Navy,  ONR  manages the  Navy’s  research  laboratories  and  ONT conducts   the   Navy’s   Exploratory   Development Program. The scope of the Navy’s research programs is as  broad  as  the  Navy’s  working  environment— from the deep ocean floor to outer space. Current and continuing long-range programs include the research  of  oceanography,  space,  advanced electronics  and  superconductivity,  neural  network computers,  artificial  intelligence,  biotechnology, ship  and  aircraft  design,  and  weapons  design. Although  this  list  could  go  on  and  on,  it  should give  you  some  idea  about  the  scope  of  the program. NAVAL   RESEARCH   LABORATORY The   Naval   Research   Laboratory   (NRL)   at Washington, D.C., is considered to be the Navy’s corporate laboratory. NRL facilities include more than 130 buildings on 129 acres of land. In their pursuit  of  new  knowledge  for  the  Navy  and  the Nation,  NRL  scientists  use  more  than  15  field sites. OCEANOGRAPHIC   RESEARCH The  Navy  has  conducted  oceanographic  re- search  since  about  1946.  Over  the  years,  as  the importance  of  this  field  of  endeavor  has  grown, many   segments   of   the   government   and   the scientific   community   have   become   directly involved.   Today,   many   federal   agencies   are involved in the Nation’s oceanographic program. The  oceanographer  of  the  Navy  coordinates  the overall  program  and  acts  as  the  Navy’s  spokes- person  on  oceanography  with  other  federal, national,  and  international  organizations. SHIPBUILDING Shipbuilding   begins   with   the   ship   design process.    Four  phases  make  up  this  process: feasibility  studies,  preliminary  design,  contract design,  and  detail  design  and  construction.  The process starts with a requirement for a new ship. This  requirement  could  be  for  a  guided-missile destroyer,  a  mine-hunting  ship,  an  amphibious assault ship, or a combat logistics support ship. Feasibility studies provide alternative designs that meet  the  requirement.  The  selected  alternative design  is  developed  into  the  ship  preliminary design.  The  contract  design  phase  defines  the  ship performance  and  contractual  terms  so  that  the prospective shipbuilders can establish the cost of, and  schedule  for,  ship  construction.  The  ship- builder develops the detail design used to build the ship. The research, development, test, and evalua- tion program promotes the development of more capable and survivable ships at a reduced cost and with reduced manning. That is accomplished by the integration of new and emerging technologies with   projected   ship   requirements.   Test   and evaluation  of  new  projects  take  place  in laboratories, at land-based test sites, and aboard ships. The David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center at Bethesda, Maryland, conducts  the  research,  development,  test,  and evaluation  of  many  hull,  propulsion,  electrical, auxiliary, and environmental protection systems. SURFACE  WEAPONS  AND WEAPONS  SYSTEMS The   focal   point   for   development   of   naval surface  warfare  weapons  systems,  research  in ordnance   technology,   and   support   of   naval strategic  systems  is  the  Naval  Surface  Warfare Center  (NSWC).  The  management,  technical programs, and resources of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory,  White  Oak,  Maryland,  and  the  Naval Weapons  Laboratory,  Dahlgren,  Virginia,  com- bined  to  form  this  center  in  1974. Some of the center’s current programs are in the  areas  of  surface-  and  air-launched  missiles, fuzing,  nuclear  weapons  effects,  high-energy  laser engineering,  antiship  missile  defense,  aerodynamic and  hydrodynamic  research,  geoballistics,  astron- autics,  and  geodesy.  Other  capabilities  include development  of  gun  systems,  torpedoes,  mines, and  advanced  strategic  weapons  concepts. Research  and  development  activities  in  the weapons  explosive  area  include  the  Naval 13-12

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