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David D. Porter
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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World War I - 12966_45
impression best described by the term  knightly. Few warriors of that caliber ever existed outside the  pages  of  fiction,  but  Semmes  lived  the  part in the best John Paul Jones’ tradition. Captain- ing Sumter  and  Alabama,  he  left  a  record  that reads like a saga of valor and daring actions. Like Jones,  he  refused  to  be  defeated  by  adversity. Deprived  of  Sumter  at  Gibraltar,  he  wrote,  “I could sweep the whole Mediterranean in from 15 to  20  days  if  I  had  the  means  of  locomotion.” Eventually he acquired the means, and his raiding cruiser  Alabama  struck  the  North  harder  blows than  any  other  Confederate  vessel. SPANISH-AMERICAN  WAR SIGNIFICANT   DATES 2  Mar.  1899 24 Jul. 1905 6  Apr.  1909 23  Dec.  1910 1 Jul. 1914 Fort  destroyed  and  possession of  outer  bay  taken  at  Guan- tanamo,  Cuba,  by  U.S.  ships. George   F.   Dewey   appointed first  and  only  Admiral  of  the Navy. Navy brings body of John Paul Jones  to  United  States. North   Pole   reached   by   Com- mander  Peary;  first  U.S.  flag raised there. LT  T.  G.  Ellyson,  the  Navy’s first  aviator,  ordered  to  flight training.  He  was  qualified  on  12 April  1911. Prohibition   proclaimed   for Navy. The  Spanish-American  War  in  1898  was caused  by  a  long  series  of  incidents  arising partially from unsettled conditions in Caribbean countries possessed by Spain. As evidenced from the  first,  the  war  would  be  primarily  naval and  would  be  decided  in  favor  of  the  nation that established sea control. The naval strength of   the   two   countries   was   about   equal   on paper.    However,   Spain’s   ships   were   poorly equipped,  its  personnel  lacked  training,  and  its officers  displayed  incredibly  incompetent leadership. Perhaps  the  outstanding  exploit  of  the Spanish-American  War  was  Commodore  George Dewey’s seizure of Manila Bay. Knowing Dewey’s fleet  was  somewhere  in  the  vicinity  of  the  bay, the Spanish were ready to receive him. However, the unsuspecting Spanish were taken by surprise by  the  American’s  audacity  to  steam  past  their forts  to  attack  during  the  night  (fig.  2-12). While laying his plans, Dewey tried to figure out  what  Farragut  would  have  done  when  so confronted, for Farragut had been the inspiration of his life. Farragut’s influence on this great leader is borne out in Dewey’s statement, “Valuable as the   training   of   Annapolis   was,   it   was   poor schooling  beside  that  of  serving  under  Farragut in  time  of  war.”  Dewey’s  dramatic  decision  to force Manila Bay was inspired by his admiration for  Farragut. Dewey’s  unexpected  blow  was  half  the  victory. “We   shall   enter   Manila   Bay   tonight,”   Dewey informed  his  subordinates,  “and  you  will  follow the  motions  and  movements  of  the  flagship,  which will   lead.” At 0540 the Spanish were within a 2 1/2-mile range.  Dewey,  standing  on  the  bridge  of  the Olympia, quietly gave the commanding officer of his  flagship  the  order  to  “fire  when  you  are  ready, Gridley.”  By  noon,  every  enemy  ship  was  sunk, burned,   or   abandoned.   In   that   one   morning, Dewey eliminated the Spanish navy’s strength in the Pacific without the loss of one American life. Even  though  the  enemy  defense  was  weak, Dewey’s   attack   was   nonetheless   a   significant victory. Dewey stressed preparedness. Before leaving the United States, he had obtained all the infor- mation  available  on  the  Spanish  fleet.  He  secured charts and other data about the Philippines and made  a  detailed  study  of  international  law.  Before the  battle,  he  discussed  with  his  officers  every detail of tactics and strategy. Every ship captain knew each detail of how and when to act. “It was the ceaseless routine of hard work and prepara- tion  in  time  of  peace,”  wrote  Dewey,  “that  won Manila  and  Santiago.” 2-14 15  Jun.  1898

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