today. Even so, direct conflict between these two
nations may not be necessary to start world
conflict. Either nations involvement in a major
conflict may depend on its international ties with
other less powerful nations.
The United States has over a period of many
years established pacts and treaties with several
nations. During and after World War II, the
United States became part of an elaborate alliance
system, committed to the defense of half the land
areas of the world (fig. 1-6).
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), established in 1949, is the best known
of several treaties drawn up in the interest of
mutual security. The terms of the treaty specify
that the parties agree that an armed attack
against one or more of them in Europe or North
America shall be considered an attack against
them all, and . . . each of them . . . will assist the
other by taking, in concert with the other parties,
such action as it deems necessary including the
use of armed forces.
A corresponding agreement similar to NATO
called the ANZUS (Australia, New Zealand,
and United States) Treaty was established
The earlier Rio Treaty (1947) had already com-
mitted the United States and the 20 independent
Latin American nations to mutual defense. In
addition, America made bilateral treaties with the
Philippines, Nationalist China, South Korea, and
Japan. By 1960 the United States was committed
Figure 1-6.-Treaties and pacts of which the United States is a member.