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Korean Confllict
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Importance of Sea Power
When North Korea attacked south of the 38th parallel,  the  U.S.  Navy  was  called  on  for  close air  support  to  destroy  bridges  and  block  enemy supply  routes.  Navy  jets  flew  from  carriers  for the first time in a war situation. Unlike the enemy in  World  War  II,  North  Korea  didn’t  have  the capability  of  striking  our  carriers;  so  pilots launched  their  Corsairs  and  Banshees  on  the  first sustained  group-support  missions  in  history. The  helicopter  was  originally  developed  during World War II but came of age during the Korean conflict.   The   Navy   received   four   Sikorsky helicopters in the earlier years of the conflict. In comparison  with  today’s  helicopter,  these  were primitive,  awkward-looking  aircraft.  The  Navy used these ugly duckling choppers as spotters for artillery  fire,  to  fly  emergency  supply  runs,  and in direct combat duties. Later, the helicopter was used  as  a  cargo  transport  between  ships  during underway  replenishment,  for  search  and  rescue missions,  and  in  antisubmarine  warfare  (ASW) exercises, The Korean conflict also introduced the first use  of  helicopters  for  medical  evacuation.  They were  used  to  transport  wounded  soldiers  from  the battlefield   to   Mobile   Army   Surgical   Hospital (MASH)   units   and   from   these   units   to   Navy hospital  ships.  In  addition  to  the  helicopter,  many other innovations currently used by the Navy were tested during this conflict. Some of these innova- tions  included  the  introduction  of  Navy  jets  for air combat and the first use of air-to-air missiles. The  first  surface-to-air  Terrier  missile  was  also tested. In June of 1952 the keel of the world’s first nuclear-powered  submarine  was  laid. One of the most notable events of the Korean conflict  came  on  15  September  1950  when  U.S. amphibious  landings  at  Inchon  began.  Besides  the protection  U.S.  Navy  ships  provided  for  these landings  with  massive  shore  bombardment,  the battleship  Missouri  successfully  shelled  inland supply  roads  far  ashore.  This  successful  operation cut the enemy’s communications, split its forces, and dissolved resistance in the area. The operation demonstrated  a  new  concept  of  sea  power—the Navy’s ability to intervene successfully in a ground operation. The  Korean  conflict  ended  in  July  1953. air  wings  furnished  alnost  half  of  the  total  tactical effort   in   Vietnam.   They   destroyed   or   heavily damaged  hundreds  of  military  targets  in  North Vietnam. They also successfully suppressed land transport as well as waterborne logistic craft on rivers  and  bays  and  along  coastal  routes. Sharing  importance  with  attack  carrier  opera- tions were amphibious operations on the coast of the Republic of Vietnam. Two amphibious ready groups  with  embarked  Marine  special  landing forces  were  committed  to  the  Vietnam  effort. Each  group  was  capable  of  conducting  assaults over  the  beach  by  both  landing  craft  and helicopter.    More  than  50  battalion-size  am- phibious   operations   were   conducted   after   the initial  landings  in  March  1965.  The  mobility  of the  amphibious  groups  and  their  readiness  to strike on short notice kept the enemy off balance, disrupted  logistical  support,  and  denied  the  enemy the  use  of  profitable  coastal  areas. The Navy provided gunfire support from May 1965 until the end of the United States’ involve- ment. Targets destroyed or damaged by the Navy included storage areas, military areas, missile sites, and railroads. The battleship USS  New Jersey  was recommissioned to provide increased capabilities in  naval  gunfire  support.  A  heavy  cruiser  could fire  an  8-inch  projectile  only  14  miles.  Any  one of the  New  Jersey’s  16-inch  guns  could  hurl  a projectile  four  times  the  weight  of  the  cruiser’s projectile a distance of 20 miles. In addition, the projectile  could  penetrate  30  feet  of  reinforced concrete.  After  the  successful  completion  of  its mission,  the   New  Jersey  was   again   decom- missioned.   Realizing   the   peace-keeping   effort these  ships  contribute  to  the  world,  the  United States recommissioned the New Jersey and three other battleships in the 1980s. The Vietnam conflict exemplified the kind of war  we  can  expect  in  the  future—intermingling of the most primitive guerilla operations with the most advanced weapons. To counter this threat, the  U.S.  Seventh  Fleet  has  provided  dramatic evidence  of  the  Navy’s  ability  to  project  the national  policy  of  the  United  States  wherever water  permits  navigation. PERSIAN  GULF VIETNAM   CONFLICT During   the   Vietnam   conflict,   five   attack carriers  were  deployed  to  the  western  Pacific (WESTPAC),  with  three  of  them  constantly  on line  in  the  Tonkin  Gulf  area.  Embarked  carrier The  United  States  and  other  nations  of  the Western  world  together  consume  nearly  three- fourths  of  the  world’s  petroleum  products. Therefore, the nations of the Western world have significant  economic,  geopolitical,  and  military 1-9

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