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John Paul Jones -Continued
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Opening Hostilities
WAR WITH FRANCE SIGNIFICANT DATES 14 Jul. 1813 LT John M. Gamble, USMC, becomes first Marine officer to command a ship in battle. 10 Sep. 1813     Oliver Hazard Perry, in Battle of Lake Erie, defeats a British naval squadron for the first time in history. 8 Jan. 1815 United States wins Battle of New Orleans. 22 Mar. 1820    Commodores Stephen Decatur and James Barron duel near Washington, D.C., resulting in Decatur’s death. Dueling in the Navy is outlawed following that incident. 16 Dec. 1835     Greatest fire in history of New York City occurs; firemen are aided by the Navy and Marines. 14 Feb. 1840     Several officers and mascot dog from USS Vincennes relax on floating ice after arriving in Antarctic regions; they are first Americans to enter that region. After the revolutionary war, the fortunes of the navy declined, and by 1785 its last ship had been sold.  Little  remained  except  fighting  traditions. When  the  U.S.  Constitution  went  into  effect  in 1789,   the   War   Department   was   charged   with directing both the army and the navy. At that time these   forces   consisted   of   only   a   few   hundred soldiers and no ships or marines. This  absence  of  naval  strength  soon  proved disastrous   because   Barbary   pirates   began   cap- turing  our  merchant  ships  and  imprisoning  their crews.  In  1794  public  sentiment  moved  Congress to authorize the building of six frigates to protect our  interests.  Thus,  the  United  States  Navy  was permanently established under the Constitution. The   makers   of   naval   tradition   during   this period  were  responsible  for  some  vast  improve- ments  in  our  conventional  Navy.  These  improve- ments,   which   helped   to   make   the   Navy   more powerful,  included  more  advanced  ship  designs and better leadership. JOSHUA HUMPHREYS President Washington appointed Joshua Humphreys, a Philadelphia Quaker, to design the first  six  frigates  of  the  new  U.S.  Navy.  He  thus became  our  first  naval  constructor.  A  technical genius, Humphreys was also a farseeing student of naval history who exerted a tremendous influence upon  the  U.S.  Navy.  He   believed   our   “vessels should    combine    such    qualities    of    strength, durability, and swiftness of sailing, and force as to render  them  superior  to  any  frigate  belonging  to the European Powers.” Departing from conventional   standards,   he   designed   the   best frigates  that  sailed  the  seas—frigates  that  could run or fight at will and fight on their own terms. His    chief    innovations    provided    for    heavier batteries;  thicker  timber;  finer  lines;  and  longer, stouter   spars   than   those   of   frigates   of   other powers. Several years later the Royal Navy paid a compliment  to  Humphreys’  skill  by  constructing frigates according to his designs. Humphreys drew up  plans  for  the  six  famous  frigates,  the  United States, Constitution (fig. 2-3), 134.5 Figure 2-3.-The new and radical USS Constitution, built for speed and firepower, helped to rid the Mediterranean of the Barbary pirates. 2-5

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