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Spanish-American War
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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O.K. Ingram
134.131 Figure 2-12.-Commodore George Dewey and his squadron sailed past the shore batteries of Manila Bay on 1 May 1898 to smash the Spanish Pacific squadron of Rear Admiral Montojo, opening the way for the American occupation of the Philippines. WORLD WAR I SIGNIFICANT DATES 24 Sept. 1918   Lieutenant (JG) David S. Ingalls becomes Navy’s first flying ace. (The criterion for becoming an “ace” is to down five enemy planes.) 28 Feb. 1919     Destroyer Osmond Ingram, first Navy ship named for an enlisted man, launched. 27 Feb. 1928     Commander T. G. Ellyson, Navy’s first aviator, killed in air crash. 28 Nov. 1929    First flight over South Pole by Lieutenant Commander Richard E. Byrd, who became the first to fly over both poles. Several days  after  our  declaration  of  war against Germany  in  April  1917,  Rear  Admiral  William  S. Sims arrived in London. Admiral Sims, who had been serving  as  President  of  the  Naval  War  College  in Newport,  was  sent  to  confer  with  British  First  Sea Lord, Admiral John Jellicoe. Explaining the status of the  submarine  war,  Jellicoe  revealed  that  available Allied shipping had been depleted by one-fourth and losses  were  mounting  at  an  appalling  rate.  April losses  alone  threatened  to  reach  the  unprecedented figure  of  900,000  tons.  Sims  realized  at  that  rate England, with only a month’s grain supply on hand, must  starve  or  surrender  within  a  few  weeks’  time. Germany was winning the war. Germany   was   building   submarines,   called   U- boats, at the rate of three a week. Sims realized the submarine  menace  had  to  be  reduced  drastically  if the Allies were to  survive.  He  appealed  to  the  Navy Department  for  immediate  dispatch  of  all  available destroyers and other antisubmarine craft, auxiliaries, and  merchant-men.  Within  a  month  after  our  entry into the war, the first American naval forces began to arrive in Britain ready for duty. From  a  naval  point  of  view,  World  War  I  was  a conflict  of  two  blockades.  The  Allies  maintained  a long-distance    blockade    of    German    ports;    the Germans,   with   the   submarine,   tried   to   blockade British    and    French    ports    by    attacking    Allied shipping.    The    unrestricted    sinking    of    neutral American  merchant  ships  was  one  reason  for  our entry  into  the  war.  The  cruiser,  the  destroyer,  and the  newly  constructed  submarine  chaser  performed support  service  in  that  campaign  against  German submarines. The Allied victory resulted in part from the Sims- inspired   convoy   system   employed   in   transporting about  2  million  American  fighting  men  to  France. Navy  convoys  also  transported  the  munitions  and supplies needed to sustain Pershing’s armies and the Allies. 2-15

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