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Summary - 134t_81
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Navy Instructor Manual - Military manual for teaching in the military
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Multiple-Choice Test Item Development - 134t_83
CHAPTER  8 TESTING INTRODUCTION Navy  schools  use  tests  to  determine  whether  or  not  a  student  has  sufficient  knowledge  or  skill to  meet  the  requirements  established  by  the  learning  objectives;  that  is,  whether  or  not  the student   has   learned   the   material.   The   philosophy   underlying   Navy   testing   is   based   on   the achievement   of   learning   objectives.   Tests   are   given   to   determine   if   a   student   can   demonstrate, in  some  measurable  way,  achievement  of  the  objectives. You  will  fill  a  critical  role  in  the  testing  program  for  the  courses  you  instruct.  After curriculum   has   been   validated,   course   personnel   (primarily   instructors)   are   responsible   for   the development   of   additional   versions   of   tests,   development   of   additional   test   items,   and   analysis of  tests  and  test  items. You   will   be   concerned   with   two   methods   of   testing;   knowledge   and   performance.   Knowledge tests  measure  achievement  of  objectives  through  the  use  of  test  items  written  at  the  appropriate learning   level.   Performance   tests   measure   skill   acquisition   by   having   the   student   demonstrate specific   behaviors   defined   by   the   learning   objectives. This   chapter   focuses   primarily   on   the information  you  will  need  to  develop  knowledge  test  items. KNOWLEDGE TEST ITEM DEVELOPMENT The  behavior,  conditions,  and  standards  specified  in  the  objectives  will  determine  the  level  of learning  tested.  You  need  to  know  how  students  will  use  this  material  in  the  job  so  that  you can  test  the  material  to  that  level.  Navy  training  uses  five  levels  of  learning  which  are  based  on, though   not   identical   to,   the   learning   levels   defined   in   Chapter   7.   Definitions   and   examples   of the  five  learning  levels  are  as  follows: Recognition.  Recognition  is  the  process  of  verbatim  identification  of  specific  terms,  facts, rules,  methods,  principles,  procedures,  objects,  and  the  like,  presented  during  training.  Students select  from  two  or  more  alternatives  to  identify  the  information.  For  example,  a  test  item  may ask  the  students  to  identify  a  particular  switch  on  a  piece  of  equipment  by  matching  its  name to  a  diagram  of  the  switch.  That  is  a  recognition  test  item  if  the  student  has  been  taught  that specific   information   during   training. Recall. Recall   is   the   verbatim   remembering   of   specific   terms,   facts,   rules,   methods, procedures,   principles,   and   the   like.   To   correctly   answer   a   recall   test   item,   students   remember and  respond  exactly  as  taught.  A  recall  test  item  requires  students  to  respond  from  memory instead  of  selecting  the  response  from  two  or  more  alternatives. Listing  the  steps  of  a maintenance  procedure  and  answering  a  completion  question  by  labeling  parts  on  a  diagram  are 72

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