demands a careful and quick mental evaluation of the answer for accuracy and completeness.
Provide feedback to the responder and class on the quality of the answer. When a student gives
an incorrect answer, be critical only of the answer and not the student. Be sure to provide
positive reinforcement for correct answers. The strength of the reinforcement depends on the
difficulty of the question asked and the relative difficulty level for the student selected. Do not
overdo the reinforcement. A simple correct or thank you may suffice.
The fifth and last step in the process, which is optional, is to emphasize or repeat the
answer given. Avoid the tendency to repeat each answer as that has the effect of diminishing
the students response. Remember that the students answer has an importance for the class as
well as for you. Insist that answers be clearly spoken; heard by all; phrased intelligibly; and if
possible, stated in the terminology of the lesson.
Other Questioning Techniques
The following techniques may be used in addition to or in conjunction with the five step
n Focus on the non-volunteer students; avoid eye contact with the active participants
when asking a question. This will encourage the quieter students to reply. Assign a
question to a student who does not have a hand raised; then provide appropriate
recognition for that students contribution.
This technique will increase class
involvement, attention, and participation because all students will know you may call
on them regardless of whether they volunteer.
9 Sometimes you may need to prompt a student who has given a weak, incorrect, or an I
dont know response to your question. Help the student to arrive at a correct answer by
asking questions that contain direct hints or clues to the correct answer. The key to
effective prompting is to begin on a simple enough level that the student can relate to the
material. The questions in the prompting sequence depend on the students previous
To begin the sequence, refer to material the student already knows.
If the initial student response was partially correct, provide reinforcement by telling the
student what was right. Then ask prompting questions until the student can give the
entire correct response.
If the students first answer is I dont know, rephrase the
question or provide an example to eliminate any confusion, ambiguity, or vagueness in
the original question.
Acknowledge the final correct student response in the same manner as if the student had
given the correct response the first time. Do not allow the prompting technique to result
in student badgering.
n Seek further clarification when a student gives a response that is poorly organized, lacking
in detail, or incomplete. Do not provide the student with any hints (prompts), clues, or
additional information, but ask the student to do so. Request clarification when you
believe the student has guessed at an answer by asking the student to justify the answer.
What else can you add?
n Use the reverse technique (answering a question with a question) to get students to think,