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Seaman - Military manual for the Seaman rate
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Types of Anchors
CHAPTER 4 DECK  SEAMANSHIP In general, rigging is a large part of deck sea- manship. The ship's standing rigging consists of lines, wires, turnbuckles, and other gear supporting and attached  to  the  stacks,  the  masts,  and  the  topside structure. Running rigging includes the rigging used in hoisting and lowering heavy weights or in positioning and  operating  movable  deck  gear. GROUND  TACKLE LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Define ground tackle.   Identify   and   describe   equipment associated with ground tackle. Ground tackle is all equipment used in anchoring and mooring with anchors and buoy mooring with chain and appendages. The following are defined as ground tackle: Anchors Anchor  chain,  wire  rope,  synthetic  line,  or combinations  of  these  materials,  when  used  with anchors Appendages  consisting  of  connecting  shackles or  links,  detachable  links,  pear-shaped  links,  end links,  bending  shackles,  mooring  shackles,  mooring swivels,   detachable-link   tool   sets,   clear   hawse pendants, dip ropes, chain stoppers, wrenches for chain stoppers, outboard swivel shots, chain cable jacks, mooring hooks, chain hooks, anchor bars, and anchor  buoys Ground tackle is one of the most vital parts of a ship's  equipment.  The  vessel's  safety  frequently depends upon the proper use of this gear; suitable ground tackle has saved many ships and lives. The anchor windlass, equipped with capstan head or gypsy heads, is a vital part of the ship's ability to handle its ground tackle and use the capstan or gypsy heads  in  mooring  and  warping  operations. SHIPS’  ANCHORS All anchors are designed to take hold as quickly as possible after they hit bottom. They take hold in one of two ways: either by hooking into the ground with one or both  of  their  sharp  flukes  or  by  burying  themselves completely. When an anchor is let go in fairly deep water, it strikes the bottom crown first. From this position, any drag on the chain causes the flukes, if properly  set,  to  dig  into  the  bottom.  As  the  drag continues, the fluke is forced further into the bottom. If the proper scope of chain is used, the heavier the drag, the deeper the fluke will dig in, developing the full holding  power  of  the  anchor. CHAIN AND WIRE ROPE CABLES Chain, wire rope cables, or cable composed of both chain and wire rope for use with ships' anchors is a part of  the  ship's  ground  tackle.  Ground  tackle  is the collective  term  applied  to  all  equipment  used  in anchoring. It includes the anchors, their chain or cables, connecting fittings, and all associated equipment used in  anchoring,  mooring  with  anchors,  buoy  mooring, being towed, or securing or letting go anchors in or from their  hawsepipes. ANCHORS LEARNING   OBJECTIVE:   Identify   and describe  the  anchoring  equipment  used  aboard ships. Anchors  used  in  the  Navy  today  are  grouped according to type. The most common types used are stockless anchors, lightweight (LWT) or stock-in- crown anchors, and two-fluke balanced-fluke anchors. Stock anchors (old-fashioned) and mushroom anchors are no longer specified as a part of Navy ship ground tackle. STOCKLESS   ANCHORS Though there are a number of different designs of modern  stockless  anchors,  all  share  the  same distinguishing feature-they are stockless. Three designs of stockless anchors are in use on naval ships: commercial, standard Navy, and the Mark 2 (Mk 2). These are shown in views A, B, and C of 4-1

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