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Wire-Rope Clips
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Seaman - Military manual for the Seaman rate
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Sewing Canvas by Hand
Figure 3-33.–Improved type of wire rope clip. CANVAS LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Define canvas. Identify and explain the use and care of canvas material. Though  canvas  is  not  as  prevalent  today  in  a Seaman's routine as it once was, it is still important. Canvas, often called duck, is a general name for a class of strong, heavy plain cloth woven of cotton or linen. Numbered duck is the canvas encountered most often, but occasionally you see the term ounce duck or army duck. Numbered duck runs from No. 1, the heaviest, to No. 12, the lightest; however, 7, 9, and 11 are no longer issued. Each number means a certain weight in ounces per square yard of cloth. For example, No. 1 is 28.71 ounces per square yard, No. 6 is 20.74 ounces per square yard, and No. 12 is 11.16 ounces per square yard. Canvas in weights  besides  those  designated  specifically  under  the numbered system is called ounce duck. Army ducks are ounce ducks similar to numbered duck, but have finer yarns,  higher  cloth  counts,  and  usually  lighter  weights. Canvas usually is made up in bolts and issued by the linear yard in widths from 22 to 72 inches. Even with the best of care, canvas is relatively short-lived, and for this reason, the Navy is turning to synthetic fabrics. Synthetic fabrics are lighter and easier to stow and resist rot and mildew. They are also more durable and less expensive in the long run. One type of synthetic fabric used extensively for tarps and awnings and for boat, winch, and reel covers is a nylon cloth with a vinyl film on both sides. (The smooth or face side is the side to expose to the weather.) Two different companies furnish this type of cloth under  their  own  trade  names  (Herculite  #80  and Hypalon).  These  white  or  grey  materials  weigh approximately 19.6 ounces per square yard and come in 50-inch widths. They are fire, water, weather, and mildew  resistant. Another  type  of  cloth,  a  black  neoprene-coated material, is less suited for topside uses but has many below-deck applications, such as for blackout and welding curtains. This material weighs approximately 2.3 ounces per square yard and comes in a 39-inch width.  Generally,  the  same  care  given  to  synthetic  lines should be given to the synthetic cloths. When synthetic cloths are dirty, you should wash these fabrics with saddle soap or any other mild soap and water; scrub them with a soft bristle brush, using a circular motion; and rinse them with clear water. In some instances, two cleanings  may  be  necessary. Much of the canvas issued in the Navy is treated to make it resistant to fire, water, weather, and mildew. Some  canvas  is  waterproof  and  oil  and  gasoline resistant. Current specifications for building ships require that all topside canvas be treated according to the intended use. Canvas to be used below decks is usually  white  and  untreated.  Preservatives  are  available for  shipboard  use  on  untreated  canvas  or  for  re-treating canvas. New and unused canvas, spare covers, and so forth, should be stowed in a clean, dry storeroom. Never store canvas where acid is (or has been) stowed; acid fumes are detrimental to canvas. Every effort should be made to provide a space free from rats, mice, and insects. Wet, painted,  or  oil-soaked  canvas  should  not  be  stowed below decks. Occasionally it is necessary to scrub canvas that has become particularly dirty or stained by grease or oil. Use a mild soap solution, rinse thoroughly, and hang the canvas up to dry. MEASURING  CANVAS Great care should be taken when measuring and cutting  canvas.  MEASURE  TWICE  AND  CUT ONCE. When measuring canvas for items that will be stretched taut (awnings, for example), DEDUCT 1/2 inch for each linear foot in both width and length. If the canvas is to be loose (as for hatch hoods and gun covers), ADD 1/2 inch for each linear foot in both width and length. Use the old article for a pattern whenever possible. When it is not available, make a sketch of the item, showing all the necessary dimensions, and work from  that. 3-25

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