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Anchor  Chain  Markings
are used to hold the anchor taut in the hawsepipes, to ride to an anchor, or to hold the anchor when the anchor chain is disconnected for any reason. When in use, a stopper is attached to the anchor chain by passing the tongue over a link of the chain and securing it by engaging the bail of the Pelican hook and passing a toggle pin. When riding to anchor with more than one stopper on the chain, the strain must be equalized in the stoppers by adjusting the settings of the turnbuckles. Large chain stopper wrenches are used for this purpose. Special housing chain stoppers, such as devil's claw or pawl-type stoppers, normally are used with  horizontal  windlasses  and  where  space  limitations do not permit use of Navy standard stoppers. Although stoppers alone are more than adequate for holding the anchor, they should be backed up with the wildcat brake. Upon anchoring, first the wildcat brake band should be set up tight, then the stoppers should be passed. The wildcat should be left disconnected from the windlass. A Navy standard chain stopper is shown in figure 4-5. Towing chain stoppers are similar to riding chain stoppers  and  housing  chain  stoppers  except  towing chain stoppers have locking plates added. These locking plates   prevent   the   towing   chain   stoppers   from unscrewing when they are subjected to the shock and vibration loading of the towing hawser. Chapter 581 of the Naval Ships' Technical Manual has detailed infor- mation  on  towing  chain  stoppers. Figure  4-6.–Mooring  shackles. Mooring  Swivels Forged steel swivels, with two links attached at each end, are used to moor with anchors. They are inserted in the chain outboard of the hawse and serve to keep  the  chain  from  twisting  as  the  ship  swings. Mooring swivels are attached in the chain with the eye end outboard, or down, to prevent them from hooking on the outer lip of the hawse when they are heaved back aboard. However, ships today have large rounded lips on the hawsepipes, making it unlikely that a reversed swivel will catch. A mooring swivel is shown in fig- ure 4-7. Chain  Cable  Jacks Mooring  Shackles Forged steel mooring shackles (fig. 4-6) are used to attach the anchor chain to mooring buoys. All mooring shackles, regardless of size, have a standard opening of 7 inches. Mooring shackles are not to be used for any other  purpose. A  cable  jack  (fig.  4-8),  consisting  of  a  lever mounted on an axle and two wheels, is used to handle anchor chain of 2 3/4 inches, or larger, in size. It is used to pick the chain up to pass a chain stopper. A pinch- point crowbar type of anchor bar is issued for smaller sizes of chain. Figure 4-5.–Navy standard chain stopper. 4-6

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