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Typical Deviation Table
Seaman - Military manual for the Seaman rate
Steering and Sailing Rules - 14067_141
remember this easily if you think of something that is TRUE as being CORRECT or already corrected. Another  handy  memory  aid,  CAN  DEAD  MEN VOTE  TWICE,  gives  the  key  to  the  problem  of changing from one to the other. Each word in our memory aid represents a word in our problem, as follows: CAN COMPASS DEAD DEVIATION MEN MAGNETIC VOTE VARIATION TWICE TRUE Variation  and  deviation  are  always  given  as EASTERLY   or   WESTERLY   errors,   and   when CORRECTING  (converting  from  compass  to  true), ADD easterly errors, and SUBTRACT westerly errors. When UNCORRECTING (converting from true to compass), SUBTRACT easterly errors, and ADD westerly  errors. Suppose the true course, taken from a chart, is 095°; variation, taken from the same chart, is 2° westerly; and deviation, taken from the deviation table, is 3° westerly. Now work the problem. Put down the things you know as follows: C D M V T 3°W 2°W° 095° Do not forget the W (for westerly) or E (for easterly); otherwise you will not know whether to add or subtract the error. Now, true course was given, and we want to find compass course. We are uncorrecting; therefore, we add westerly errors and subtract easterly errors. Both errors are westerly, so we add them both. C D M V T 100° 3°W 097° 2°W° 095° Compass  course  is  100°. Let us now set up a problem converting compass course to true course. We have given compass 193°, variation  7°  easterly,  and  deviation  2°  westerly. This time we are correcting; therefore, we add easterly  and  subtract  westerly  errors. C D M V T 193° 2°W 191° 7°E° 198° After a little practice, you can work these problems in your head. Because it is compass course or true course you are interested in, find the algebraic sum of the two errors. An algebraic sum is obtained by adding the two errors if they are in the same direction, or subtracting the smaller error from the larger error if they are in opposite directions. The total error then is added to, or subtracted  from,  whichever  course  is  given. In   many   boats,   deviation   is   very   small   or nonexistent;  and  when  this  is  true,  merely  apply variation and you have your answer. In some boats, however, the motor and the other metal objects do cause deviation.  These  boats  must  be  swung,  deviation  tables made out, and the date used when correcting the compasses. RULES  OF  THE  ROAD LEARNING OBJECTIVES: List and explain the basic Rules of the Road. Identify and list sound  signals. International Rules of the Road are specific rules for all vessels while on the high seas and in connecting waters  that  are  navigable  by  seagoing  vessels.  The Inland Rules apply to all vessels operating on the inland waters of the United States, and to vessels of the United States operating on the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes (to the extent that there is no conflict with Canadian  law). As a Seaman, you will need a basic knowledge of the Rules of the Road for boat operation. The  International  Rules  were  formalized  at  the convention  on  the  International  Regulations  for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972. These rules are commonly  called  72  COLREGS. The Inland Rules discussed in this chapter replace the old Inland Rules, Western River Rules, Great Lakes Rules, their respective pilot rules, and parts of the Motorboat  Act  of  1940.  Many  of  the  old  navigation  rules were  enacted  in  the  last  century.  Occasionally, provisions were added to cope with the increasing complexities  of  water  transportation.  Eventually,  the navigation rules for the United States inland waterways became  such  a  confusing  patchwork  of  requirements that in the 1960s several unsuccessful attempts were 5-18

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