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Food Nutrients - 14163_152
CHAPTER 7 NUTRITION AND MENU PLANNING One of your most important duties as a senior Mess Management Specialist (MS) is to see that the general mess (GM) customers are always well fed. To be well fed means that they should have not only enough food but   also   the   right   kind   of   food   in   the   proper combinations;  that  is,  foods  containing  the  correct amounts of the various nutrients necessary to good health  and  well-being.  To  accomplish  this,  the  menus must be carefully and skillfully planned to produce the right combinations of food in dishes that will appeal to the personnel to whom they are served. This should be accomplished within your budget and with the food items you have had the foresight to stock on board. This service  must  be  carried  out  afloat  and  ashore, consistently, under varying operating conditions, in widely  differing  geographic  locations,  and  in  all  kinds of weather. The purpose of this chapter is to provide you with the information and guidance needed in the areas of menu planning, and nutrition, and ultimately, in the supervision  of  other  personnel  in  this  area. The  foodservice  division  is  a  customer  service oriented division, and customer satisfaction is one of our primary goals. We should take every opportunity to motivate the personnel who man the contact points (galley, serving line, and mess area), whether civilian or military, to do their best and to take pride in the caliber of service they provide their shipmates. Motivating our personnel in these positions provides a special challenge to  the  senior  MS.  We  should  make  sure  the  personnel manning these contact points realize that they are part of a people-oriented team, that they are an important part of our Navy, and that the positions they hold at these contact  points  are  positions  of  special  trust  that  support our   most   important   resource-our   Navy   men   and women. NUTRITION Nutrition  is  the  science  of  the  nourishment  of  the human body, the science of food. To master this science we  should  familiarize  ourselves  with  the  nature  of  food. Food   is   composed   of   various   nutrients:   proteins, carbohydrates,  fats,  minerals,  vitamins,  and  water. Nutrition concerns itself with determining what components  are  needed  and  how  much  of  each  is required  to  maintain  healthy  bodies.  Nutrition  concerns itself  with  the  ways  in  which  foods  are  altered  in processing, storage, and preparation, and in the ways in which foods are transformed chemically in the body. Nutrition deals with the preparation and serving of foods in such a way as to make sure the nutrients necessary to good health are not unnecessarily lost in the process. In addition, nutrition should be concerned with the social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of foods. When you prepare your next meal, the patrons will have  definite  ideas-positive  or  negative-about  the meal and the specific foods that are served. They may delight in the variations in the texture, in the color combinations  of  the  food,  in  the  artistic  touch  of  a garnish, or they may find the food unacceptable because the fuel lacks color or is carelessly served. They may enjoy the tantalizing smell of meat, of freshly baked rolls, or the fragrance of fully ripened fruit. The odor of grease that has been too hot or of vegetables that have been cooked too long may cause lack of appetite and even  nausea  The  patrons  will  experience  countless flavors-the salty, sweet, bitter, and sour tastes and their variations;  they  will  feel  the  textures  of  smooth  or fibrous, crisp or soft, creamy or oily, moist or dry foods. The  provision  of  a  nutritious  diet,  well  cooked  and attractively  served,  plays  an  important  part  in  the acceptability of a meal. FOOD  CONTENT Food  is  any  substance  consisting  essentially  of protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water that is used in the body to sustain growth, to build and repair tissues, to furnish energy, and to sustain the vital processes of the body. The body’s needs for the various  nutrients  vary  with  age,  sex,  occupation,  and environment.  A  child  needs  certain  foods  to  grow  and the  body  continues  to  require  certain  foods  for  its upkeep.  Vitamins,  minerals,  and  proteins  provide regulators that enable the body to use other materials. Fuel for the body’s energy and warmth is provided by food. 7-1

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