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Glossary: F
Mess Management Specialist 1 & C - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Glossary: K - L
GARNISH—To decorate a dish with colorful, savory food items, such as sprigs of parsley placed around fish or potatoes or a colorful bit of fruit added to a dessert. GELATINIZE—The  swelling  of  starch  particles  in  hot water. GERM—A  pathogenic,  or  disease-producing, bacterium;  a  living  substance  capable  of  developing into an animal or plant. GERMICIDE—An  agent  capable  of  destroying  germs. GLAZE—A thin sugar syrup coating (or a thickened sugar mixture) used for coating pastries, cakes, and meats. GLUCOSE—A simple sugar made by action of acid on starch. It is made chiefly from cornstarch and is usually referred to as corn syrup. GLUTEN—The  elastic  protein  mass  that  is  formed when  flour  is  mixed  with  water.  Composed  of  two proteins:  gliadin  for  elasticity  and  glutenin  for strength. GOULASH—(Hungarian) A national stew of Hungary, variously made in the United States of either beef, veal, or frankfurters with onions and potatoes. A covering sauce has tomato paste and paprika as ingredients. It may be served with sour cream. GRAHAM  FLOUR—Finely  ground  whole  wheat flour. GRAINING—Refers to the formation of crystals in a cooled sugar solution after it has been boiled. If cooling  is  slow,  large  crystals  will  form.  Rapid cooling  produces  small  crystals.  Small,  fine crystallization,  desired  in  making  fondant,  is accomplished  by  rapid  mixing  during  cooling. GRATE—To pulverize food items by rubbing on the rough surface of a grater, GREASE—To rub utensil with grease (butter or other fat) preparatory to putting a food material in it to be cooked. GRILL—To cook, uncovered on a griddle, removing grease as it accumulates. No liquid is added. GUMBO—A  creole  dish,  resembling  soup,  that  is thickened  with  okra,  its  characteristic  ingredient. HARD SAUCE—A dessert sauce made of butter and confectioners’  sugar  thoroughly  creamed.  The mixture is thinned or tempered with either boiling water or spirits. HASH—A  dish  made  of  chopped  or  minced  meat and/or vegetable mixture in brown stock. HEARTH—The heated baking surface of the floor of an oven. HERMITS—A rich short-flake cookie. HOLLANDAISE—A hot sauce made with egg yolks and butter and served with vegetables. HORS  D’OEUVRES—(French)  Light  snack-type food eaten hot or cold at the beginning of a meal. These  foods  correspond  to  the  Italian  antipasto  and the  Scandinavian  smorgasbord. HOST—Any  living  animal  or  plant  affording  food  for growth to a parasite. HOT CROSS BUNS—A sweet, spicy, fruity bun with a cross cut on the top that is usually filled with a plain  frosting. HUMIDITY—Usually  expressed  as  relative  humidity. The capacity of air to retain moisture varies with its temperature.  Thus,  relative  humidity  is  the  present moisture content related to total moisture capacity for the present temperature and stated as a percent. HUSH PUPPIES—A bread served mostly in the South with fish and is made by deep frying cornbread batter  seasoned  with  onions. HYDROGENATED  OIL—A  natural  oil  that  has  been treated with hydrogen to convert it to a hardened form. INCUBATION  PERIOD—That  time  between entrance of disease-producing bacteria in a person and  the  first  appearance  of  symptoms. INSECTICIDE—Any  chemical  substance  used  for  the destruction  of  insects. INVERT  SUGAR—A  mixture  of  dextrose  and levulose made by inverting sucrose with acid or enzymes. ITALIENNE—(French)   Refers   to   Italian   style   of cooking. JAMBALAYA—A creole rice-tomato dish with fish, shellfish, or meat. JARDINIERE—(French) A meat dish or a garnish, “garden” style, made of several kinds of vegetables. JELLY WREATH—A rolled ring of basic sweet dough containing  jelly. JULIENNE—(French) A way of cutting vegetables, meat, or poultry into fine strips or shreds. AII-6

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