Temperatures of 86°F and above, particularly
temperatures of 95°F to 105°F, promote the
development of rope. When the climatic condition is
such that the shop temperature is high, rope could
develop even in doughs that are lower in temperature
than 85°F. In the tropics, high humidity often
accompanies high temperature. This increases the
danger of rope developing in the bread. Also, doughs
that are not sufficiently acid are highly subject to rope
infection. Since acidity is normally increased through
fermentation, an overly warm dough may not have time
to become sufficiently acid to retard the development of
When the weather or climate is hot and humid, you
should keep a sharp lookout for the appearance of rope
and do everything in your power to prevent its
By controlling the temperature of the
doughs, you can keep them cold enough to retard the
development of rope. A mold-preventive inhibitor can
be added to the bread dough. To prevent the
development of rope, you should take the following
. Baking ingredients should not be kept in the shop
longer than necessary, and those that are kept should be
arranged in such a way as to allow free circulation of air
. The bread-baking schedule should be planned so
that the bakery is not overstocked; this would result in
some of the bread becoming old in the shop or in the
. Bread that has accumulated and has become stale
may be used for croutons and crumbs.
. All bread should be thoroughly cooled before it
. Keep equipment scrupulously clean and see that
no pieces of previous doughs are allowed to remain in
the shop. The shop and all equipment should be
thoroughly cleaned as soon after it is used as possible.
In the event that rope does develop in your shop, it
will be necessary to kill all the rope bacteria before you
do any more baking. Generally, you should take the
Dispose of all baked products and baking
ingredients in the shop.
Thoroughly clean the shop and all the equipment.
Wash the bulkheads, decks, and overhead with
hot soapy water and rinse them thoroughly.
Remove all foreign matter from all equipment
and tools and from the cracks and seams in the
Sterilize the workbench and all small equipment.
Rinse down everything a second time with a
strong vinegar and water solution.
Mold. Mold is composed of tiny plants that are
visible to the naked eye. There are many types of mold
that vary in form and color. They form velvety, colored
spots on the bread and create a musty odor. Mold spores
are present in the air and will become visible on most
any food substance if they are given sufficient time
under proper conditions to develop. Mold will multiply
in a warm, humid atmosphere or on moist food. The
absence of light and sufficient time also contributes to
their growth. Mold first appears on the side of the loaf.
Mold is not resistant to heat; therefore, mold that
may be present in baking ingredients will probably be
killed during baking. This means that any mold on the
baked bread is a result of improper handling of the bread
after it is baked.
To prevent the formation of mold in the bakeshop,
take the following precautions:
Keep the shop clean and dry.
Assure proper circulation of air in the shop.
Make sure all areas are lighted.
Bake bread thoroughly and cool properly before
Always avoid handling the bread with wet or
Make sure bread is not kept for any length of
time, since bread molds very quickly in storage.
Several types of hot rolls can be made from the basic
recipe in the AFRS.
The method of making rolls is the same as that used
for making bread. However, less mixing is required and
the dough is much softer. Careful handling of the dough
will assure light, tender rolls.
To make up the rolls, take the following steps (see
1. Divide the dough into 3- or 4-pound pieces.