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Fish Tapeworm Infection Fish tapeworm is transmitted by infected fish that has  not  been  thoroughly  cooked.  For  purposes  of  safety, always make sure fish is thoroughly cooked and is never tasted in the raw state. MOLDS AND YEASTS Other types of cell life that may not be harmful are molds  and  yeasts. Molds Molds are composed of many cells and maybe very small or large enough to cover an entire wall. They grow best  in  dark,  damp  places  where  temperatures  are favorable.  Some  molds  are  valuable  in  the  production of medicines such as penicillin; other molds may cause certain  infections  in  human  beings. Molds  spoil  the  taste  of  food  and  eventually  destroy it. Molds may be removed from certain foods and the remainder  of  the  food  used.  Consult  your  medical department on the precautions to be taken. Yeasts Like   bacteria,   yeasts   are   single-celled.   They reproduce   by   budding. When   a   bud   becomes sufficiently large, it separates from the original cell and becomes  an  independent  cell.  Certain  yeasts  are  used in  breadmaking,  vinegar  fermentation,  and  the manufacture  of  beverages. FOOD PREPARATION It is evident that the foodservice worker is the most important  link  in  the  transmission  of  disease  through food. The   workers’   health,   personal   habits, understanding of bacteria, and the methods of preparing and  serving  of  food  are  of  concern  not  only  to themselves but also to their shipmates as well. BACTERIA An understanding of bacteria is valuable to all personnel and essential to those who work with food in any way. Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms; so small they are visible only under a microscope. They are widely distributed in the air, water, soil, and in animal  and  plant  tissues. Bacteria  are  classified according to their shape. Those round in shape are called cocci; the rod-shaped ones are called bacilli; and the  spiral-shaped  ones  are  called  spirilla. Since  bacteria  camnnot  be  seen,  our  best  defense against  the  harmful  bacteria  is  strict  adherence  to sanitation  principles.  Bacteria  can  move  of  their  own accord only in liquids and cannot leave a fluid surface unless transported as “passengers” by other agents such as dust, food dishes, silverware, cooking utensils, dirty fingers or fingernails, a common drinking cup, a hand towel,  water,  insects,  or  rodents. Bacteria  reproduce  themselves  simply  by  dividing in half. On the average each bacterium, under favorable conditions,  will  divide  and  become  two  bacteria  every 20 minutes. The rate of multiplication or growth of bacteria is affected by heat or cold. Certain types of bacteria, if allowed to grow and multiply, produce toxins that cause food poisoning. Boiling will kill all bacteria, but it will not kill the toxins once they are allowed to form. Certain strains of the staphylococcus bacteria will withstand boiling temperature for long periods of time before they are killed and are virtually impossible to kill by normal cooking methods. Once toxins have been allowed to form, no amount of cooking will make the food safe. Refrigeration will prevent the bacteria from producing toxins but will not kill the toxins once they are  formed. FOODSERVICE PERSONNEL Since foodservice personnel are considered to be the most likely mode of transmission of disease through food,  certain  requirements  such  as  medical examinations, sanitation training, and personal hygiene must  be  completed  before  such  personnel  can  work  in food  preparation  areas. Physical Examination All  foodservice  personnel  including  personnel employed  by  civilian  contract  services  must  be examined   and   determined   to   be   free   from communicable diseases before initial assignment in foodservice. Subsequent physical examinations will be conducted  annually.  The  physical  examination  must  be sufficiently comprehensive to detect acute or chronic diseases. Laboratory  tests  and  other  diagnostic determinations  are  performed  at  the  discretion  of  the senior  medical  officer;  however,  all  foodservice personnel   must   be   examined   for   evidence   of tuberculosis. Employees of contract services must be examined  by  either  local  or  military  medical 1-4

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