Some of the desirable work habits that personnel
should develop to prevent personal contamination areas
. Spoons, knives, and forks should be picked up or
touched only by their handles.
l Cups, glasses, and bowls should be handled so
that fingers and thumb do not contact inside surfaces or
l Portable- and fixed-food preparation equipment
should be stored so that they require minimum
handling by personnel. Improper storage ruins the effect
of sanitizing, and excess handling will introduce
. Disposable dinnerware must be handled and
dispensed to prevent contamination of surfaces that
come in contact with food or with the mouth of the user.
. Tongs, picks, spatulas, scoops, dipping spoons,
and other suitable utensils must be used in such a manner
to keep manual contact with food at a minimum.
Figure 1-1 shows some of the good daily health
habits for foodservice personnel.
REPORT PERSONAL ILLNESS AND ALL
MINOR INFECTIONS. Boils and sore throats are
sources of bacteria that can cause severe food-borne
diseases. When ill, report it and make arrangements to
be relieved of duty. Sores, rashes of any kind, pimples,
or other skin eruptions as well as cuts should be reported
and medical aid solicited as soon as possible. Both
supervisory personnel and operators are responsible for
notifying medical personnel if a disease is suspected.
APPLY PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND
TECHNIQUES. All personnel must be alert to the
hazards associated with speedup methods and shortcuts
to washing and sanitizing operations. Techniques of
sanitizing including times, temperatures, and
routinesshould be memorized and applied. The
effectiveness of sanitation is directly related to the
competence and cooperation of foodservice personnel.
COMPLY WITH SANITARY REGU-
LATIONS. Public health ordinances and regulations
imposed by the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
(BUMED) must be observed in day-to-day foodservice
Recognized standards of sanitation
embracing accepted public health principles are
prescribed by these sources and administration of
regulations at each activity will be enforced. Figure 1-2
shows correct and safe work habits you should develop
Most food-borne disease outbreaks are due to four
factors: (1) preparation of food too far in advance,
(2) poor refrigeration of food, (3) careless handling of
food, and (4) failure of personnel to follow good
personal hygiene habits.
The following precautions should be observed in
preparing and serving food:
. Food should be served promptly after it is
. Any food that has been ground or chopped and
is to be cooked later or incorporated in a prepared dish
must be refrigerated immediately. Such ground or
chopped food should be refrigerated until cooked;
once cooked, they should never be saved as leftovers.
When food is ground, an increase in the area of
contamination and growth of harmful bacteria results.
When chilled foods are ground, the grinding process
warms the food to the point where bacteria growth
. Place meats that are cut, sliced, or diced in
shallow containers, cover with lids or with waxed paper,
and refrigerate immediately. The temperature of the
meat-cutting room should be maintained at 50°F.
Improper handling of meats can result in spoilage as
well as in the transmission of disease.
. If you are using individual serving containers, do
not put ice on top of containers.
. All fresh pork products must be cooked to an
internal temperature of 165°F or above. Never serve
raw pork products.
l Keep foods covered at all times except during
actual preparation and serving.
l Palletize all subsistence items in storage spaces
to facilitate cleaning and air circulation.
l Keep all worktables and benches clean at all
. Store food off the deck.
. Keep food preparation utensils, meat grinders,
and other similar equipment clean and handle them
properly. Food that comes in contact with equipment
that is contaminated becomes contaminated also.
. Wash your hands before preparing food.