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Poultry Types
The following rules pertaining to roasting apply to beef, veal, pork, and lamb. Included with each rule is the  “why.” l  Use  a  moderately  low  oven  temperature  (325°F) so the roast will be uniformly done throughout, the cooking losses will be moderate, the meat will be more palatable, and the roast will be plump and full. High temperatures   cause   excessive   shrinkage,   uneven cooking, and decreased juiciness and tenderness. .  Do  not  sear  meat  before  roasting.  Searing toughens the outer layer of meat, increases cooking losses, causes a loss of fat, and contributes to excessive shrinkage. . Place roast fat side up on the pan. This eliminates basting; as the meat cooks, it will baste itself with the melting  fat. . Add salt to the roast before or after it is cooked. Salt penetrates less than half an inch below the surface and any salt added before the roast is cooked adds flavor to the drippings. . Unless specified in the AFRS recipe, never cover a roast. If the roasting pan is covered, the moisture escaping from the meat will surround it and the meat will be cooked by moist heat. .  Do  not  add  water.  Roasts  cooked  without  water are  juicier  and  more  flavorful.  The  only  reason  for adding  water  would  be  to  keep  the  drippings  from becoming too brown. This will not happen, however, when  low  oven  temperatures  are  used. .  Do  not  flour  the  roast.  Drippings  from  a  floured roast may be a more attractive brown, but the same results  can  be  obtained  by  browning  flour  in  the drippings when you make the gravy. . Use a meat thermometer to tell when the roast is done.  The  meat  thermometer  is  the  only  accurate measure  of  doneness.  The  length  of  cooking  time depends on the temperature of the oven, the weight and shape of the roast, and the kind of meat. A dial-type meat thermometer is shown in figure 6-5. The thermometer should be inserted into the center of the main muscle (the thickest part of the meat) so that the tip of the thermometer does not touch the bone, gristle, or the fat. As the heat from the oven penetrates the meat, the internal temperature at the center of the roast gradually rises and this rise is registered on the thermometer.  When  the  thermometer  registers  the Figure  6-5.—Dial-type  roast  meat  thermometer. desired temperature for that particular kind of meat, the roast is ready to be removed from the oven. . Boneless meat will require a somewhat longer cooking period than meat with bones. A smaller roast requires more minutes per pound than a larger one. Follow the AFRS recipe that specifies the type of meat required  and  the  proper  cooking  temperature. Cooking time is only a guide to meat doneness. Roasts  will  continue  to  cook  slightly  after  being removed  from  the  oven.  Cooking  time  depends principally upon the size and cut of the meat, the degree of  doneness  desired  or  required,  and  the  cooking temperature. The temperatures at which meats are cooked  also  determine  cooking  times.  Maintaining even  temperatures  aids  in  predicting  cooking  periods. For information on convection oven cooking, check the AFRS  guidelines,  specific  recipes,  and  manufacturer’s directions for meat cookery. POULTRY Poultry is a menu favorite. Chicken, duck, Rock Cornish hen, and turkey are the main poultry items used in  Navy  messes. 6-10

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