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Mess Management Specialist 1 & C - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Salad Greens
cooked in the shortest time possible and in a small amount of water. Never use baking soda to preserve color.  Overcooking,  cooking  in  too  much  water,  or using soda in the water destroys the nutrients you are trying to conserve. In  fact,  undercook  rather  than  overcook  vegetables. This is especially applicable when you know the cooked vegetable is to be placed on the steam table or is to have a  second  heating  or  cooking  period,  such  as  creaming, scalloping, or baking. To determine if the vegetable is done, press pieces of the vegetable between the thumb and forefinger and taste the sample. If it is done, the vegetable should be tender but have a definite bite quality. SALADS Salads have an important place on the menu. They contribute something both nutritious and refreshing to the lunch or dinner meal. Fruit salads and vegetable salads  are  the  most  popular.  They  also  introduce valuable vitamins, necessary minerals, and color into the meal. Salads can be made quickly and easily if a few simple  rules  are  followed.  This  is  equally  true  for individual salads that often seem more appetizing and receive greater acceptance than a large dish of salad. After a crisp, refreshing, and attractive salad is produced,  it  should  be  served  so  that  none  of  this attractiveness is lost. Select a cool place for assembling and serving the salad. Bring individual salads from the refrigerator, a few at a time, so that they will remain crisp. Salad Ingredients Salads consisting of fruits, vegetables, meat, or a combination  of  these  ingredients  provide  a  good  menu for diet-conscious people or people who are trying to lose  weight. Nearly all salads contain some fresh, crisp greens, at least as a garnish; beyond that, however, the range of ingredients is very wide. A salad may consist of greens tossed with dressing, or it may consist of a combination of  vegetables  or  fruits  (or  both).  There  are  also  hearty salads that may be used as the main dish of the meal. SALAD  GREENS.—  Select  your  salad  greens carefully. You have a wide choice of greens that are suitable   for   a   salad   foundation—lettuce,   endive, escarole, young spinach, and cabbage (fig 5-9.) These may also be used as one of the main ingredients of the salad itself. Parsley and the inner tender leaves of curly endive are good for a garnish. Sort, trim, wash, and crisp the greens before making the salad. Wash them carefully to free them of sand and earth particles. Drain them well. Hand cut the lettuce and cabbage into strips or pieces. Place the prepared greens in pans, cover them with wax paper or a damp cloth,   and   refrigerate. They   should   be   drained thoroughly and be free of excess water before they are placed in the serving line. They should be one of the very last parts of the meal to be prepared. SALAD   VEGETABLES.—   Fresh,  canned,  or dehydrated  vegetables  may  be  used  for  salads.  Select the fresh vegetables with care. Wash them thoroughly. Trim and peel them, if necessary, and cut them into uniform sizes. Cook those that need cooking. When canned vegetables are to be used in a salad, the liquid drained from the cans should be reserved and used in soups,  sauces,  or  gravies.  The  canned  vegetables  may be marinated in French dressing before being used in a salad. Dehydrated cabbage, green peppers, onions, and string beans may be reconstituted and used in salads. Salads used for the main course for lunch or dinner should  be  substantial  and  provide  the  food  values comparable  to  any  other  main  dish. SALAD FRUITS.— Fruits add variety as well as color and texture to the salad bar. Fresh, frozen, and canned fruits maybe used. Salad Dressings The  salad  dressing  is  as  important  as  the  salad  itself. Each type of dressing can take on a new flavor by the addition  of  different  seasonings  and  herbs. BASIC  DRESSINGS.—  The two basic kinds of salad  dressings  are  French  dressing  and  cooked  salad dressing.  Commercial  salad  dressing  is  similar  to mayonnaise except that a cooked starch paste is added and less oil is used than in mayonnaise. French dressing is basically oil and vinegar to which many kinds of seasonings  may  be  added.  Commercial  French  dressing usually  contains  tomato  paste  or  puree  as  well  as emulsifiers  that  keep  the  oil  and  vinegar  from separating. SALAD   DRESSING   INGREDIENTS.—   A variety of seasonings can be added to the oil and acid basic  ingredients  (usually  lemon  juice  or  vinegar)  of  a salad  dressing  to  produce  different  kinds  of  dressings that complement a specific type of salad. 5-17

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