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Molding and Shaping Bread Dough
Mess Management Specialist 1 & C - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Mold - 14163_184
temperature  also  vaporizes  moisture  on  the  surface  of the  bread  and  ultimately  causes  caramelization  of  the sugars, starches, and other ingredients that make up the exposed dough surface. The oven temperature and the time  required  to  bake  a  loaf  of  bread  will  vary, depending on several factors. When using convection ovens, follow the operating manual instructions or use the  AFRS  guideline  card  for  convection  ovens.  Baking time is shorter and temperature is lower in a convection oven  than  in  a  conventional  oven.  Remember  that  some bread  recipes  will  contain  convection  oven  information as a note. Bread is the end product of a long line of chemical and physical reactions. If the loaf is removed from the oven before these changes occur, no matter what crust color  is  obtained,  the  loaf  will  lack  desirable  qualities. Color and thickness of crust depend on the length of time the loaf is subjected to oven temperature and on the concentration of sugars. Aroma of underbaked bread is “green,”  lacking  the  full-scale,  delicious  fragrance characteristic of freshly baked bread. If sufficiently underbaked, the loaf sides will collapse and proper slicing is not possible. The oven temperature may be controlled for the purpose of influencing bread character in other ways than just the color.    A  low  oven  temperature  tends  to open the grain of the loaf. If too high a temperature is used, the loaf may burst in a rather violent manner, usually along the sides, that results in a misshapen loaf. A properly baked loaf of bread sounds hollow when tapped. Remove the baked loaves of bread from pans and cool on racks in areas free from drafts. Bread will dry out more quickly if the air is either too warm or too dry. COOLING.— After the bread is done, remove the loaves from the pans and place them on racks to cool, making sure there is at least a 1-inch space between loaves. Cooling usually takes from 1 1/2 to 2 hours. Bread should not be covered while it is warm STORING AND SERVING.—  Bread should be stored at cool room temperature under conditions where it will not dry out. If wrapped in plastic bags that are closed with twisters, bread can be stored for up to 96 hours in a cool room. If the room is hot and humid, it may be necessary to store the bread under refrigeration to  prevent  mold  from  forming.  Refrigeration  is  not ideal,  however,  for  extended  storage  because  bread stales more rapidly under refrigeration than it does at room  temperature.    This staling makes the bread firm and the crumb becomes coarse and hard. Bread may be 8-7 held for extended periods if frozen in plastic wrap or bags. If freezer storage is impractical, bread quality is best maintained by baking in quantities that will be consumed within 48 hours. The  bread  storage  should  be  arranged  so  that  the older  bread  always  can  be  used  first.  Sliced  bread  left over from a previous meal can be thoroughly dried and used  for  bread  crumbs,  bread  pudding,  or  crouton preparation. SHORT-TIME  FORMULA.—  This  formula  was developed to meet a critical need aboard Navy ships with limited bakery space. The short-time formula eliminates both the intermediate proof and the final loaf-molding    operation. This modified sponge-type dough produces a good loaf of bread. More  importantly,  ships  without  production equipment can produce bread within 2 to 2 1/2 hours. In  addition  to  eliminating  the  8-  to  10-minute intermediate proof, the baker can roll the rounded pieces into a sausage shape and pan—one person being able to roll and pan an average of 20 per minute. Hot rolls and variations  may  be  prepared  using  the  short-time formula. Follow the AFRS for best results. A room temperature of 80°F should be maintained to assure the desired finished product. Any increase in the bakeshop temperature will, of course, reduce the fermentation   time. Because  of  the  absence  of fermentation rooms aboard ship, this control is strictly dependent  on  the  baker’s  skill  and  knowledge  in determining the readiness of the dough. Mixing time will not change, however, as the 10-minute periods appear to be optimum for proper dough development under  practically  all  conditions. UNDESIRABLE   CONDITIONS.—   Certain undesirable conditions may develop in the baking and storing of bread that will not only spoil individual loaves and batches but will infest the bakery and continue to destroy  subsequent  bakings.  Sanitary  precautions against  these  conditions  are  particularly  necessary  in hot,  humid  climates. Rope.— Rope is an undesirable condition of bread caused by bacteria. The crumb of the loaf deteriorates, darkens, and becomes sticky and wet. If the loaf is pulled  apart,  long  wet  strands  will  appear  as  it  separates. Rope has an odor similar to overripe cantaloupe. The rope spores that are formed from the active rope bacteria cells are highly resistant to heat, and any that  may  be  near  the  center  of  the  loaf  will  not necessarily be killed by baking.

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