temperature also vaporizes moisture on the surface of
the bread and ultimately causes caramelization of the
sugars, starches, and other ingredients that make up the
exposed dough surface. The oven temperature and the
time required to bake a loaf of bread will vary,
depending on several factors. When using convection
ovens, follow the operating manual instructions or use
the AFRS guideline card for convection ovens. Baking
time is shorter and temperature is lower in a convection
oven than in a conventional oven. Remember that some
bread recipes will contain convection oven information
as a note.
Bread is the end product of a long line of chemical
and physical reactions. If the loaf is removed from the
oven before these changes occur, no matter what crust
color is obtained, the loaf will lack desirable qualities.
Color and thickness of crust depend on the length of time
the loaf is subjected to oven temperature and on the
concentration of sugars. Aroma of underbaked bread is
green, lacking the full-scale, delicious fragrance
characteristic of freshly baked bread. If sufficiently
underbaked, the loaf sides will collapse and proper
slicing is not possible.
The oven temperature may be controlled for the
purpose of influencing bread character in other ways
than just the color. A low oven temperature tends to
open the grain of the loaf. If too high a temperature is
used, the loaf may burst in a rather violent manner,
usually along the sides, that results in a misshapen loaf.
A properly baked loaf of bread sounds hollow when
tapped. Remove the baked loaves of bread from pans
and cool on racks in areas free from drafts. Bread will
dry out more quickly if the air is either too warm or too
COOLING. After the bread is done, remove the
loaves from the pans and place them on racks to cool,
making sure there is at least a 1-inch space between
loaves. Cooling usually takes from 1 1/2 to 2 hours.
Bread should not be covered while it is warm
STORING AND SERVING. Bread should be
stored at cool room temperature under conditions where
it will not dry out. If wrapped in plastic bags that are
closed with twisters, bread can be stored for up to 96
hours in a cool room. If the room is hot and humid, it
may be necessary to store the bread under refrigeration
to prevent mold from forming. Refrigeration is not
ideal, however, for extended storage because bread
stales more rapidly under refrigeration than it does at
room temperature. This staling makes the bread firm
and the crumb becomes coarse and hard. Bread may be
held for extended periods if frozen in plastic wrap or
bags. If freezer storage is impractical, bread quality is
best maintained by baking in quantities that will be
consumed within 48 hours.
The bread storage should be arranged so that the
older bread always can be used first. Sliced bread left
over from a previous meal can be thoroughly dried and
used for bread crumbs, bread pudding, or crouton
SHORT-TIME FORMULA. This formula was
developed to meet a critical need aboard Navy ships
with limited bakery space.
The short-time formula
eliminates both the intermediate proof and the final
This modified sponge-type
dough produces a good loaf of bread.
More importantly, ships without production
equipment can produce bread within 2 to 2 1/2 hours.
In addition to eliminating the 8- to 10-minute
intermediate proof, the baker can roll the rounded pieces
into a sausage shape and panone person being able to
roll and pan an average of 20 per minute. Hot rolls and
variations may be prepared using the short-time
formula. Follow the AFRS for best results.
A room temperature of 80°F should be maintained
to assure the desired finished product. Any increase in
the bakeshop temperature will, of course, reduce the
Because of the absence of
fermentation rooms aboard ship, this control is strictly
dependent on the bakers skill and knowledge in
determining the readiness of the dough. Mixing time
will not change, however, as the 10-minute periods
appear to be optimum for proper dough development
under practically all conditions.
UNDESIRABLE CONDITIONS. Certain
undesirable conditions may develop in the baking and
storing of bread that will not only spoil individual loaves
and batches but will infest the bakery and continue to
destroy subsequent bakings. Sanitary precautions
against these conditions are particularly necessary in
hot, humid climates.
Rope. Rope is an undesirable condition of bread
caused by bacteria. The crumb of the loaf deteriorates,
darkens, and becomes sticky and wet. If the loaf is
pulled apart, long wet strands will appear as it separates.
Rope has an odor similar to overripe cantaloupe.
The rope spores that are formed from the active
rope bacteria cells are highly resistant to heat, and any
that may be near the center of the loaf will not
necessarily be killed by baking.