spread the frosting to the same thickness across the top
and to the edges of the cake. The AFRS has guidelines
for preparing frosting and for frosting all types of cakes.
TOPPINGS, GLAZES, AND FILLINGS.
Toppings, glazes, and fillings, or a combination of these,
can enhance the flavor, texture, and appearance of cakes.
Some cakes are identified by the toppings or glazes.
Pineapple, or other fruit, combined with brown sugar
and melted butter and covered with yellow cake batter
makes upside-down cakes. Shortcake are made by
serving fruit and whipped topping with plain cake.
Gingerbread is usually served with whipped topping or
lemon sauce. Boston cream pie is a cake with a cream
filling and covered with chocolate glaze. To make jelly
rolls, sponge cake is spread with jelly, rolled, and cut in
slices. Vanilla glaze topping may be spread over angel
food cakes or drizzled over bundt-type cakes such as
chocolate macaroon cake.
Ice-cream toppings and
powdered sugar may be served with pound cakes for
Cookies are a popular dessert. Unlike most other
desserts they can be stored for a day or more and used
as they are needed. The various types of cookies are
defined by the special processes used in making them.
These types and processes are described in the following
paragraphs. General directions for successful cookie
making are summarized.
Types of Cookies
Cookies are often referred to as small sweet cakes
and classified by the method of mixing: stiff dough, soft
dough, and refrigerated dough. Recipes for the three
classes of cookies are contained in the AFRS. The
following types of dough are used in the production of
cookies: soft dough is used for drop cookies; stiff dough
is formed into a roll and baked on sheet pans; and
refrigerated dough is formed into a roll, wrapped, and
refrigerated until sliced and baked.
Cookies are formulated much like cake, except that
there is less liquid (eggs and milk) and the baked cookies
are characterized by soft, hard, brittle, or chewy
SOFT DOUGH. Soft-batter cookies have a high
moisture content and, therefore, require a greater
percentage of eggs to give them structure. The desired
finished product is soft and moist and should be stored
or packaged in a container with a tight-fitting cover.
Cookies included in this category are dropped cookies
of all sorts and brownies (butterscotch and chocolate).
STIFF DOUGH. Formulas of stiff dough contain
less liquid and eggs and more flour than soft cookies.
These cookies are often referred to as sliced or rolled
cookies. The desirable finished product is crisp. When
humidity becomes excessive, the cookies become moist
and tend to soften up and lose their desirable crispness.
Examples are peanut butter cookies and sugar cookies.
Crisp cookies should be stored in a container with a
REFRIGERATOR DOUGH. Refrigerator
cookies are mixed in the same manner as other cookies,
except the dough is very stiff. The resulting cookie is
very brittle. After the mixing is completed, the dough
is weighed into pieces of convenient size. The dough is
then formed into rolls, then they are sliced into the
desired slices, wrapped in wax paper, and put into the
refrigerator until time to bake them. The advantage of
this type of cookie is that it can be made and stored in
the refrigerator until it is needed, thus eliminating waste
and providing a ready source of dessert at short notice.
Butternut and chocolate refrigerator cookies are good
Cookies are mixed in much the same manner as
batter cakes. The temperature of the ingredients should
be approximately 70°F. The dough is sometimes chilled
later to facilitate shaping.
Cookie doughs should be mixed just enough to
blend the ingredients thoroughly. Overmixing develops
the gluten in the dough, thereby retarding the spread.
When the mix is overcreamed, the cookies will not
spread as much because of the dissolving of the sugar
crystals. Improper mixing of ingredients will produce
cookies that are spotted.
The conventional or creaming method is the most
commonly used method. The longer the shortening and
sugar are creamed, the less spread the final product will
have because the sugar will be more finely distributed
throughout the mix. The longer the dough is mixed after
blending the flour and water, the more developed the
structure of the mix will become and less spread will
result. Undercreaming will give the cookies a coarse
structure and will result in a baked product that has too
much spread. If lumps of sugar are left in the dough
during mixing, sticking is likely to occur due to the syrup
that is formed during baking. Then, the sugar becomes
hard and solidifies on the pans.