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Decorating Techniques - 14163_195
Mess Management Specialist 1 & C - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
spread the frosting to the same thickness across the top and to the edges of the cake. The AFRS has guidelines for preparing frosting and for frosting all types of cakes. TOPPINGS,   GLAZES,   AND   FILLINGS.— Toppings, glazes, and fillings, or a combination of these, can enhance the flavor, texture, and appearance of cakes. Some cakes are identified by the toppings or glazes. Pineapple,  or  other  fruit,  combined  with  brown  sugar and melted butter and covered with yellow cake batter makes  upside-down  cakes.  Shortcake  are  made  by serving fruit and whipped topping with plain cake. Gingerbread is usually served with whipped topping or lemon sauce. Boston cream pie is a cake with a cream filling and covered with chocolate glaze. To make jelly rolls, sponge cake is spread with jelly, rolled, and cut in slices. Vanilla glaze topping may be spread over angel food cakes or drizzled over bundt-type cakes such as chocolate  macaroon  cake. Ice-cream toppings and powdered sugar may be served with pound cakes for variation. COOKIES Cookies are a popular dessert. Unlike most other desserts they can be stored for a day or more and used as they are needed. The various types of cookies are defined by the special processes used in making them. These types and processes are described in the following paragraphs. General directions for successful cookie making  are  summarized. Types of Cookies Cookies are often referred to as small sweet cakes and classified by the method of mixing: stiff dough, soft dough, and refrigerated dough. Recipes for the three classes  of  cookies  are  contained  in  the  AFRS.  The following  types  of  dough  are  used  in  the  production  of cookies: soft dough is used for drop cookies; stiff dough is formed into a roll and baked on sheet pans; and refrigerated  dough  is  formed  into  a  roll,  wrapped,  and refrigerated  until  sliced  and  baked. Cookies  are  formulated  much  like  cake,  except  that there is less liquid (eggs and milk) and the baked cookies are  characterized  by  soft,  hard,  brittle,  or  chewy textures. SOFT DOUGH.— Soft-batter cookies have a high moisture  content  and,  therefore,  require  a  greater percentage of eggs to give them structure. The desired finished product is soft and moist and should be stored or packaged in a container with a tight-fitting cover. Cookies  included  in  this  category  are  dropped  cookies of all sorts and brownies (butterscotch and chocolate). STIFF DOUGH.—  Formulas of stiff dough contain less  liquid  and  eggs  and  more  flour  than  soft  cookies. These cookies are often referred to as sliced or rolled cookies.  The  desirable  finished  product  is  crisp.  When humidity becomes excessive, the cookies become moist and tend to soften up and lose their desirable crispness. Examples are peanut butter cookies and sugar cookies. Crisp cookies should be stored in a container with a loose-fitting  cover. REFRIGERATOR  DOUGH.—   Refrigerator cookies are mixed in the same manner as other cookies, except the dough is very stiff. The resulting cookie is very  brittle.  After  the  mixing  is  completed,  the  dough is weighed into pieces of convenient size. The dough is then formed into rolls, then they are sliced into the desired slices, wrapped in wax paper, and put into the refrigerator until time to bake them. The advantage of this type of cookie is that it can be made and stored in the refrigerator until it is needed, thus eliminating waste and providing a ready source of dessert at short notice. Butternut  and  chocolate  refrigerator  cookies  are  good examples. Mixing Methods Cookies are mixed in much the same manner as batter cakes. The temperature of the ingredients should be  approximately  70°F.  The  dough  is  sometimes  chilled later to facilitate shaping. Cookie  doughs  should  be  mixed  just  enough  to blend  the  ingredients  thoroughly.  Overmixing  develops the gluten in the dough, thereby retarding the spread. When the mix is overcreamed, the cookies will not spread as much because of the dissolving of the sugar crystals.  Improper  mixing  of  ingredients  will  produce cookies that are spotted. The  conventional  or  creaming  method  is  the  most commonly used method. The longer the shortening and sugar are creamed, the less spread the final product will have because the sugar will be more finely distributed throughout the mix. The longer the dough is mixed after blending  the  flour  and  water,  the  more  developed  the structure  of  the  mix  will  become  and  less  spread  will result. Undercreaming will give the cookies a coarse structure and will result in a baked product that has too much spread. If lumps of sugar are left in the dough during mixing, sticking is likely to occur due to the syrup that is formed during baking. Then, the sugar becomes hard and solidifies on the pans. 8-20

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