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c  Cans  in  unsatisfactory  or  surveyable  condition . Food products with spoilage or damage indicated by offensive odors, presence of slime, abnormal color, or  other  evidence  of  deterioration . Food items adulterated by easily recognizable foreign material such as metal, glass, dirt, or insects Do not attempt to taste or cook food in these states. It is safe to observe the old saying, “When in doubt, throw  it  out.”   ‘The  risk  of  food-borne  illness  must  be avoided.  After  any  occurrences  of  spoiled  or  damaged food,  corrective  actions  must  be  provided  and  measures must be designed to prevent future occurrences. KEEPING UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT CLEAN All  phases  of  sanitation  in  a  general  mess  are important.  However,  one  of  the  most  important  is  the proper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment (including trays, dishes, and other dinnerware) used for preparing, handling,  cooking,  and  serving  food. Dishes may be washed by hand or by machine. Whatever  the  method,  the  final  results  may  either  be excellent  or  poor,  depending  upon  how  conscientiously you  apply  your  knowledge  and  skill  in  using  the equipment  and  materials  provided.  The  best  equipment and detergents will not do a good job of dishwashing if used  improperly. Types of Soil Unless  the  galley  equipment  and  utensils  are thoroughly cleansed, food particles in which bacteria may grow will remain on them. These food soils are divided  into  several  distinct  types: Freshly   deposited   soil —the  soil  that  remains immediately after the equipment or utensil has been used. Thin film-—the soil that remains as the result of ineffective cleaning, following a flushing with water. Thin films are not easily seen and they are capable of sustaining  germs. Built-up  deposits—the  result  of  repeated  ineffective cleaning  methods  causing  a  day-by-day  accumulation of soil. Dried deposits—accumulations that result from drying action and formation of a heavy crusty deposit. Baked deposits—deposits that have been baked onto equipment and have become difficult to remove. Removing  Stubborn  Soils The Navy procures the correct type of detergent to be  used  in  washing  food  preparation  utensils  and equipment. Hot water also provides temperatures that increase  the  chemical  activities  of  the  various ingredients   in   properly   compounded   detergents. Friction is an important part of cleaning. The required friction may be applied by brushing with approved brushes  or  by  strong  flushing,  as  in  dishwashing machines. A hard abrasive should never be used on any metal surface. This results in scratches that provide lodging  places  for  soil.  It  is  recommended  that  pots  and pans,  cooking  utensils,  and  other  such  items  be presoaked to loosen any food clinging to the utensil. Then, they should be washed using the proper detergent compound and hot water. A detergent increases the effectiveness of the water as a cleaning agent. The washed pots and pans must be rinsed with warm water at 120°F to 140°F, then sanitized for 30 seconds in hot water of 170°F or for at least 1 minute in an approved chemical sanitizing solution such as the standard stock chlorine-iodine  type.   Once washed and sanitized, the clean pots and pans should be stored, bottoms up, in clean  racks.  Otherwise,  the  effort  spent  in  washing  and sanitizing  them  is  wasted.  Figure  1-6  shows  the Figure 1-6.—Temperatures necessary for proper sanitizing of foodservice equipments and utensils. 1-12

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