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t salad dressings, poultry dressing, bread puddings, cream pies,  eclairs,  and  filled  pastries. These  microorganisms  are  transmitted  to  the  food by  personnel  who  are  sick  or  carriers  and  who  are allowed to handle food in the food preparation area. Salmonellosis Salmonella  bacteria  are  transmitted  by  foods, usually  from  undercooked  or  semicooked  raw  foods,  or from  foods  that  have  become  infected  after  cooking  by persons  who  are  harboring  the  bacteria.  Since salmonella bacilli leave the body through the intestinal tract, the main source of salmonella infection is people who do not wash their hands after leaving the head. Consequently,  they  contaminate  all  the  food  they handle. Also,  mice,  rats,  and  cockroaches  may contaminate  food  by  dragging  filth  over  food  and  food utensils,  or  by  intestinal  deposits  that  are  brushed  off into food or containers. While  no  specific  foods  may  be  said  to  be responsible for salmonellosis, the ones most likely to harbor the salmonella bacilli are (1) those that are usually eaten raw such as salads and greens; (2) cooked leftover foods that are not reheated thoroughly; (3) foods that   are   undercooked,   especially   poultry   and uninspected meats; and (4) infected eggs that are eaten raw   or   undercooked. See   “Safe   Egg-Handling Guidelines”  in  chapter  1  of  NAVMED  P-5010. Streptococcus Infections such as septic sore throat and scarlet fever are  transmitted  by  contaminated  milk  and  by  certain other   foods,   including   meat,   meat   products,   and dressings.  One  type  of  this  infection  also  causes  a gastrointestinal disturbance. Floor dust is one of the modes of transmission. Typhoid Fever Typhoid  fever  is  transmitted  by  milk,  shellfish,  or water supplies that have become polluted with the urine or feces of a person harboring the organism of this disease. It is also spread by human carriers and flies that transport the typhoid bacteria from soiled articles to foods, dishes, and cooking utensils. Bacillus Dysentery Bacillus dysentery is transmitted by contaminated foods  or  water,  by  human  carriers,  or  by  flies.  The bacilli of this disease are found in the bowel discharges of  infected  persons. Infectious Hepatitis Infectious  hepatitis  is  a  form  of  liver  disease  with symptoms   of   general   discomfort.   Jaundice,   often characterized by skin yellowing, and other signs of liver injury are sometimes present. The disease is highly contagious. Drinking water or unsanitary conditions and  flies  or  other  biting  insects  may  transmit  the infectious  material. ANIMAL PARASITES Animal parasites sometimes enter the body in food and produce infections. Some of these forms of animal life are one-celled. All are so tiny that they are not visible when the food is being prepared. Amoebic  Dysentery This illness is caused by a one-celled animal, the amoeba. These organisms eat the red blood corpuscles of the body and the cells that line the intestines. The dysentery-producing amoeba is transmitted by foods served cold and moist, such as celery, lettuce, other fresh vegetables,  or  fresh  berries.  These  foods  may  be infected by human earners, by flies, or by having been grown  in  fields  where  animal  excreta  was  used  as fertilizer. Trichinosis Eating infected pork that has not been thoroughly cooked is the most common cause of trichinosis. All fresh  pork  products  must  be  cooked  to  an  internal temperature of 165°F or above to kill the trichinella worm. Since there is no way of knowing whether or not this  parasite  is  present,  the  pork  must  always  be thoroughly  cooked. Beef Tapeworm Infection Beef tapeworms are transmitted by infected beef that has not been cooked long enough to kill the encysted larvae. To prevent ingesting the beef tapeworm, only government-inspected  beef  should  be  used.  If  it  is necessary to use beef that has not been inspected, freeze it at 14°F or below for 5 days or longer, or pickle it in a 20- to 25-percent salt solution for 5 days or longer. Cook it well-done; never serve it rare. 1-3

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