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Appendix II - Glossary - 14164_309
Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Appendix II - Glossary - 14164_311
BARBECUE—To roast slowly, basting with a highly seasoned  sauce. BASTE—To moisten foods while cooking, especially while  roasting  meat.    Melted  fat,  meat  drippings, stock, water and fat, or water may be used. BATTER—A  homogeneous  mixture  of  ingredients with liquid to make a mass that is semiliquid. BAVARIAN   CABBAGE—(German)   Sautéed   cabbage with  onions  and  vinegar. BAVARIAN CREAM—(German) A variation of soft custard into which gelatin and whipped cream and sometimes egg whites and flavoring are folded. BEAT—To blend and introduce air by using a rapid over-and-over  or  rotary  motion. BECHAMEL  SAUCE—(French)  A  seasoned  cream sauce with meat stock; egg yolks may be added for color  and  different  consistency. Used   for vegetables,  meat,  fish,  and  poultry. BENCH TOLERANCE—(Baking term) The property of dough to ferment at a rate slow enough to prevent overfermentation while dough is being made up into units on the bench. BISQUE—(French)  A  thick  soup  usually  made  with  a white sauce base and containing fish, shellfish, chicken, or cooked meat. Ingredients are pureed. Also,   a   rich   frozen   dessert,   often   containing powdered nuts or macaroons. BLANCH—1. To partially cook in hot, deep fat for a short time until clear but not brown. Used for potatoes. 2. To rinse with boiling water, drain, and rinse with cold water. Used for rice, macaroni, and other pastas to prevent sticking. 3. A method used to remove skins from almonds. BLANCMANGE—(French)  Literally,  “white  food.” A  pudding  thickened  with  cornstarch  only. BLEEDING—Dough   that   has   been   cut   and   left unsealed at the cut, thus permitting the escape of leavening gas. Also applies to icing that bleeds. BLEND—To  thoroughly  mix  two  or  more  ingredients. BOIL—To cook in a liquid that bubbles actively during the time of cooking. The boiling temperature at sea level is 212°F. BOTULINUS—A deadly bacterium that develops in canned foods that have been improperly canned. BOUILLON—(French) A clear soup made from beef or chicken stock. May be used as a soup or gravy base. Obtainable  in  cubes  or  powder  for reconstituting. BOWL  KNIFE—A  spatula  or  flexible  dull-edge  knife used to scrape batter or dough from bowl sides. BRAISE—To  brown  meat  or  vegetables  in  a  small amount  of  fat,  then  to  cook  slowly,  covered,  at simmering temperature (185°F to 210°F) in a small amount of liquid. The liquid may be juices from meat or added water, milk, or meat stock BRAN—Skin or outer covering of the wheat kernel. BREAD—To cover with crumbs or other suitable dry coating ingredient; or to dredge in a mixture of flour, seasonings, and/or condiments, dip in a mixture of milk  and  slightly  beaten  eggs  and  then  dredge  in bread  crumbs. BROIL—To cook under or over direct heat; to grill. No liquid  is  added. Oven—to   cook   in   an   oven, uncovered.  Griddle-to  cook  uncovered  on  a  hot griddle,  removing  grease  as  it  accumulates. BROWN—To  seal  juices  inside  a  piece  of  food  by searing its surfaces on a hot griddle or pan. BRUNSWICK  STEW—A  main  dish  composed  of  a combination of poultry, meats, and vegetables. BUTTERFLY—A  method  of  cutting  double  chops (usually pork) from boneless loin strips. The double chops are joined by a thin layer of meat. BUTTERHORNS—Basic  sweet  dough  cut  and  shaped like horns. BUTTERSCOTCH—A flavor produced by the use of butter and brown sugar. BUTTER  SPONGE—Cake  made  from  sponge  cake batter to which shortening has been added. CACCIATORE—(Italian) Refers to a chicken cooked “hunter”  style. Browned chicken is braised in a sauce made with tomatoes, other vegetables, stock and herbs. CAMEBERT—Soft,   full-flavored   cheese. CANAPE—(French)  An  appetizer  eaten  with  the fingers, served either hot or cold. Small pieces of bread, toast, or crackers topped with a tasty spread. CANDY—To  cook  in  sugar  or  syrup. CAPON—A young male bird that has been castrated at an early age, to improve the flavor, and fattened. AII-2

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