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Appendix II - Glossary - 14164_312
CARAMELIZE—To  heat  sugar  or  food  containing sugar  until  sugar  melts  and  a  brown  color  and characteristic  flavor  develops. CARAMELIZED  SUGAR—Dry  sugar  heated  with constant stirring until melted and dark in color, used for  flavoring  and  coloring. CARBOHYDRATES—Sugars  and  starches  derived chiefly  from  fruits  and  vegetable  sources  that contain  set  amounts  of  carbon,  hydrogen,  and oxygen. CARBON  DIOXIDE—A  colorless,  tasteless,  edible gas   obtained   during   fermentation   or   from   a combination of soda and acid. CARDAMON—Seed of an East Indian spice plant used for  flavoring. CARRIERS—Persons  who  harbor  and  send  out  germs without  having  symptoms  of  a  disease. The individual has either had the disease atone time and continues to excrete the organism, or has never manifested symptoms because of good resistance to the disease. CHIFFONADE—(or Chiffonade) (French) A method of  cutting  foods  into  fine  strips  to  be  used  as garnished.  (See  Julienne.) CHIFFONADE   DRESSING—A   salad   dressing containing strips of hard-cooked eggs and beets. CHIFFON CAKE—A sponge cake contacting liquid shortening. CHIFFON   PIE—A   pie   shell   filled   with   a   rich custard-type filling into which whipped egg whites and/or cream have been folded. CHILI—(Spanish) A pepper or its fruit. Dried chili peppers are ground into chili powder. CHILI  CON  CARNE—(Mexican)  A  dish  consisting of  ground  beef  and  beans  seasoned  with  chili powder. CHOP—To  cut  food  into  irregular  small  pieces  with  a knife or chopper. CHOP  SUEY—A  thick  stew  originating  in American-Chinese restaurants, composed of thin slices of pork and various vegetables, among which is  a  generous  amount  of  bean  sprouts,  celery,  and onions. COAGULATE—To curdle, clot, congeal, or solidify. CHOUX PASTE—A pastry dough interlayered with butter  or  shortening  to  attain  flakiness;  leavened during  baking  by  the  internally  generated  steam; used to make eclairs and cream puffs; also called puff  paste. CHUTNEY—A  pickle  relish  originating  in  India. Many kinds and amounts of different ingredients are used. COAT—To cover entire surface of food with a given mixture. COMPOUNDS—(Baking  term)  Certain  mixtures  of fats and oils. CONDIMENTS—Substances  that  in  themselves furnish little nourishment but have stimulating flavor. CONGEALING  POINT—Temperature  at  which  a liquid changes to a plastic or solid. CONSOMME—(French)  A  clear  soup  made  from  two or more kinds of concentrated meat stock. COOKING LOSSES—Weight loss, loss of nutrients, and  possibly  a  lowered  palatability  resulting  from cooking finds. CORN—A method of preserving and seasoning with salt brine and other preservatives. CREAMING—The  process  of  mixing  and  aerating shortening and another solid, such as sugar or flour; to  thoroughly  blend. CREAM PUFFS—Baked puffs of cream puff dough that are hollow; usually filled with whipped cream or cooked custard. CREOLE—A  sauce  cooked  and  used  over  poultry served with rice or a casserole dish of poultry or seafood and rice cooked in such a sauce. CRESCENT  ROLLS—Hard-crusted  rolls  shaped  into crescents, often with seeds on top. CRIPPLE—A   misshapen,   burnt,   or   otherwise undesirable  baked  item. CROQUETTE—(French)   A   product   made   by incorporating  a  minced  vegetable,  fish,  poultry,  or meat  into  shaped  balls  or  cones  that  are  rolled  in crumbs  and  fried. CROUTONS—(French) Bread cut into small, cubed pieces and either fried or browned in the oven, depending upon the intended use. They are fried for use  as  a  garnish  or  baked  when  used  as  an accompaniment  for  soup. AII-3

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