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Appendix II - Glossary - 14164_311
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Appendix II - Glossary - 14164_313
CRULLERS—Long,   twisted,   baking   powder doughnuts. CRUSTING—Formation  of  dry  crust  on  surface  of doughs  due  to  evaporation  of  water  from  the surface. CUBE—To  cut  any  food  into  square-shaped  pieces. CURDLE—To   change   into   curd;   to   coagulate   or thicken. CURRANT—The   acid   berry   of   several   species   of shrubs of the gooseberry family; used primarily for jelly and jam. CURRY—A  powder  made  from  many  spices  and  used as  a  seasoning  for  Indian  and  Oriental  dishes (shrimp or chicken curry). CUT IN—Baking term that means to combine solid shortening and flour with a pastry blender or knife. DANISH   PASTRY—A   flaky   yeast   dough   having butter or shortening rolled into it. DASH—A  scant  one-eighth  teaspoon. DEMITASSE—A half cup. In this country, the term is applied  to  after-dinner  coffee,  which  is  usually served   in   half-size   cups.   Demitasse   coffee   is usually made stronger than that served with a meal. DIASTASE—An  enzyme  possessing  the  power  to convert  starches  into  dextrose  and  maltose. DICE—To  cut  into  cubes  of  approximately  one-fourth inch. DISINFECTANT—A  chemical  agent  that  destroys bacterial and other harmful organisms. DISSOLVE—To  mix  a  solid  dry  substance  with  a  liquid until solid is in solution. DIVIDER—(Baking  term)  A  machine  used  to  cut dough into a desired size or weight. DOCK—To punch a number of vertical impressions in a dough with a smooth round stick about the size of a pencil to allow for expansion and permit gas to escape  during  baking. DOUGH—The  thickened  uncooked  mass  of  combined ingredients  or  bread,  rolls,  and  cookies,  but  usually applied to bread. DRAWN  BUTTER—(or  Sauce)  When  salted  butter  is melted, the salt separates from the oil and settles. The oily portion is poured, or “drawn” off, hence, the name. Drawn butter may be used unthickened, seasoned   with   a   little   lemon   or   a   dash   of AII-4 Worcestershire sauce and a bit of chopped parsley, chives, or mint. Drawn butter sauce is a thickened sauce made from drawn butter and used with fish, shellfish,  and  green  vegetables. DREDGE—To coat food items with flour, sugar, or meal. DRESS—As  applied  to  food:  to  prepare  for  cooking  or for the table, as to dress a chicken. DRIPPINGS—Fat  and  juices  dripped  from  roasted meat. DRY  YEAST—A  dehydrated  form  of  yeast. DUCHESS—(or Duchesses) A name given to various mixtures to which beaten whole eggs (or whites only in some dessert items) are added. The mixture is shaped into balls and baked. A method used most often  with  mashed  potatoes. DUSTING—Alight film of flour or starch that is placed on  pans  or  workbench  to  prevent  dough  from sticking. ECLAIR—(French) A small filled pastry made from cream  puff  batter  (or  choux  paste).  The  filling varies,  but  usually  is  vanilla  cream  filling  or whipped  cream  injected  from  a  special  tube  filler. The baked, filled shell is dusted with confectioners’ sugar or covered with a thin layer of chocolate. EMULSIFICATION—The   process   of   blending together fat and water solutions to produce a stable mixture that will not separate on standing. ENCHILADAS—(Mexican) A dish popular in many parts of the United States consisting of tortillas topped with a meat sauce and cheese. ENRICHED  BREAD—Bread  made  from  enriched flour and containing federally prescribed amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, iron, and niacin. ENTRÉE—(French) An intermediary course of a meal, which in the United States is the “main” course. ENZYME—A substance produced by living organisms that has the power to bring about changes in organic materials. EXTRACT—Essence   of   fruits   or   spices   used   for flavoring. FERMENTATION—The   chemical   change   of   an organic compound due to action of living organisms (yeast  or  bacteria),  usually  producing  a  leavening gas.

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