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Preparation and Cooking of Poultry - 14164_142
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Deboning Meat and Poultry
Intense heat will harden and toughen the protein, shrink the muscles, and dry out the juices, thus producing a less palatable  product.  All  poultry  should  be  cooked  to  the well-done  stage. Follow  the  AFRS  directions  for preparation. Panfrying.—  To panfry poultry, wipe the pieces dry, season them with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour. If a heavier coating (crust) is desired, dip the pieces in batter or a milk and egg mixture and roll them in soft bread crumbs before they are fried. Put approximately one-half inch of frying fat in a heavy frying pan and preheat to a temperature of 360°F to 365°F. Add the pieces  of  poultry  to  the  hot  pan.  Turn  the  pieces fiequently. Use tongs or two spoons to turn the pieces. Do not use a fork because puncturing the meat with the tines of the fork allows the juices to escape. Cook until well-done. Oven Frying.— Dip the pieces of poultry in flour, milk and egg mixture, then into crumbs. Place poultry in a shallow pan. Pour the fat over the pieces to ensure an even coating. Cook in the oven. Deep-Fat Frying.— To deep-fat fry poultry, wipe the pieces dry, season them with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour. If a heavier coating (crust) is desired, dip the pieces in batter or a milk and egg mixture and roll them in soft bread crumbs before they are fried. Place enough fat in the pan to completely cover the pieces of poultry. Preheat the fat to 325°F, then carefully lower the pieces into the fat. Do not crowd. The chicken may be cooked until done, or it may be browned in deep fat and placed in the oven to complete the cooking. Always allow  the  fat  to  regain  the  proper  temperature  before reloading the fryer. The  giblets  (gizzard,  heart,  and  liver)  need  no preparation other than ordinary washing in cold water before  cooking.  One  precaution-the  liver  should  be inspected  closely  to  detect  any  sign  of  bile contamination. The bile sack is often broken during its removal   from   the   liver.   Bile   damage   is   easily recognizable by a greenish brown or yellow color on the liver. Any liver indicating bile damage is unfit to eat and must  be  discarded. After washing the giblets in cold water, you should place them in just enough cold salted water to cover, bring  to  a  boil,  then  reduce  the  heat  and  simmer approximately 1 hour or until they are tender. (Livers cook much faster than gizzards and should be cooked separately.) Save the stock and chop the giblets (do not grind) for use in the gravy or dressing. Refrigerate them until they are ready to use. MEAT CARVING For  special  occasions  such  as  holidays,  hand carving  hams  or  roast  meats  on  the  serving  line  is preferred to slicing by machine in the galley. Rules for Carving Meat Meats carve more easily if allowed to set (cool off after  cooking).  The  AFRS  recipes  specify  a  20-minute period. The following rules for carving meat should be used: l l l l l l Always use clean, sanitized equipment. Use the proper knives for the job. Keep  the  knives  sharp. Use a meat fork. Always cut across the grain of the meat and away from  the  body. Arrange meat portions in a serving pan so that you can easily remove slices without breaking them. You should be able to carve meat portions of equal size. Meat, fish, and poultry recipes indicate the size of the  serving  portions. Carving  Roast  Turkey Roast whole turkey is usually carved in the galley. Let the turkey stand for about 30 minutes after it is removed  from  the  oven  before  carving.  This  will  allow the juices to be absorbed, the flesh to become firm, and the turkey can then be sliced with greater ease and efficiency. The carving techniques described as follows are the procedures that should be followed for carving turkey in the galley and will provide generous, accurate portions. 1. Use a sharp, long-bladed knife. Place the legs to your right if you are right-handed, to the left if you are  left-handed. 2. Remove the leg by holding the drumstick firmly with the thumb and forefinger. Cut through the skin by drawing the knife back and forth and sever the joint. Press the leg away from the body with the flat side of the knife. Cut the remaining skin on the back. Remove the  oyster  (choice  dark  meat  in  spoon-shaped  bone  on back) with the leg. 3.  Disjoint  the  drumstick  and  the  thigh  by holding  the  leg  at  a  right  angle  to  the  board.  Cut 6-13

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