Intense heat will harden and toughen the protein, shrink
the muscles, and dry out the juices, thus producing a less
palatable product. All poultry should be cooked to the
Follow the AFRS directions for
Panfrying. To panfry poultry, wipe the pieces dry,
season them with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour.
If a heavier coating (crust) is desired, dip the pieces in
batter or a milk and egg mixture and roll them in soft
bread crumbs before they are fried. Put approximately
one-half inch of frying fat in a heavy frying pan and
preheat to a temperature of 360°F to 365°F. Add the
pieces of poultry to the hot pan. Turn the pieces
fiequently. Use tongs or two spoons to turn the pieces.
Do not use a fork because puncturing the meat with the
tines of the fork allows the juices to escape. Cook until
Oven Frying. Dip the pieces of poultry in flour,
milk and egg mixture, then into crumbs. Place poultry
in a shallow pan. Pour the fat over the pieces to ensure
an even coating. Cook in the oven.
Deep-Fat Frying. To deep-fat fry poultry, wipe
the pieces dry, season them with salt and pepper, and roll
them in flour. If a heavier coating (crust) is desired, dip
the pieces in batter or a milk and egg mixture and roll
them in soft bread crumbs before they are fried. Place
enough fat in the pan to completely cover the pieces of
poultry. Preheat the fat to 325°F, then carefully lower
the pieces into the fat. Do not crowd. The chicken may
be cooked until done, or it may be browned in deep fat
and placed in the oven to complete the cooking. Always
allow the fat to regain the proper temperature before
reloading the fryer.
The giblets (gizzard, heart, and liver) need no
preparation other than ordinary washing in cold water
before cooking. One precaution-the liver should be
inspected closely to detect any sign of bile
contamination. The bile sack is often broken during its
removal from the liver. Bile damage is easily
recognizable by a greenish brown or yellow color on the
liver. Any liver indicating bile damage is unfit to eat and
must be discarded.
After washing the giblets in cold water, you should
place them in just enough cold salted water to cover,
bring to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer
approximately 1 hour or until they are tender. (Livers
cook much faster than gizzards and should be cooked
separately.) Save the stock and chop the giblets (do not
grind) for use in the gravy or dressing. Refrigerate them
until they are ready to use.
For special occasions such as holidays, hand
carving hams or roast meats on the serving line is
preferred to slicing by machine in the galley.
Rules for Carving Meat
Meats carve more easily if allowed to set (cool off
after cooking). The AFRS recipes specify a 20-minute
period. The following rules for carving meat should be
Always use clean, sanitized equipment.
Use the proper knives for the job.
Keep the knives sharp.
Use a meat fork.
Always cut across the grain of the meat and away
from the body.
Arrange meat portions in a serving pan so that
you can easily remove slices without breaking
You should be able to carve meat portions of equal
size. Meat, fish, and poultry recipes indicate the size of
the serving portions.
Carving Roast Turkey
Roast whole turkey is usually carved in the galley.
Let the turkey stand for about 30 minutes after it is
removed from the oven before carving. This will allow
the juices to be absorbed, the flesh to become firm, and
the turkey can then be sliced with greater ease and
efficiency. The carving techniques described as follows
are the procedures that should be followed for carving
turkey in the galley and will provide generous, accurate
1. Use a sharp, long-bladed knife. Place the legs
to your right if you are right-handed, to the left if you
2. Remove the leg by holding the drumstick firmly
with the thumb and forefinger. Cut through the skin by
drawing the knife back and forth and sever the joint.
Press the leg away from the body with the flat side of
the knife. Cut the remaining skin on the back. Remove
the oyster (choice dark meat in spoon-shaped bone on
back) with the leg.
3. Disjoint the drumstick and the thigh by
holding the leg at a right angle to the board. Cut