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Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Food Intoxication - 14164_12
CHAPTER 1 SANITATION In a foodservice operation nothing can rival the importance  of  the  sanitary  aspects  of  food  preparation and   service.   Carelessly   handled   food   is   easily contaminated  with  pathogenic  organisms  that  may  lead to  illness. This  chapter  discusses  the  methods  of preventing illnesses arising from poor sanitary practices in the preparation and service of food. In  addition  to  the  hazards  of  food  contamination, which Mess Management Specialist (MS) personnel have always contended with, modern warfare has added other  hazardous  chemical,  biological,  and  radiological agents that may be used in any future war. Protection of the  food  supply  and  decontamination  measures  in  the galley and messing areas are vital to the defense of the ship or station. FOOD-BORNE ILLNESSES Food-borne   illnesses   can   incapacitate   large numbers  of  personnel  in  a  short  period  of  time.  In addition to the toxins or poisons produced by bacterial growth,  certain  foods  are  inherently  or  naturally poisonous. The poisons in these foods tend to attack the nervous system resulting in such symptoms as weakness or  paralysis,   numbness,  tingling  of  the  ears, apprehension,  and  even  death. Food-borne illnesses can be classified into the three following   basic   types: natural  or  chemical  food poisoning,  food  intoxication,  and  food  infection. NATURAL  OR  CHEMICAL  FOOD POISONING Both  natural  and  chemical  food  poisonings  are caused by man; man’s carelessness, indifference, or ignorance. Natural and chemical food poisonings are grouped  together  as  one  food-borne  illness  because  they both   occur   naturally. The  characteristics  that differentiate  natural  and  chemical  poisonings  are discussed  next. Natural Food Poisoning. In this type of food-borne illness,  the  food  in  its  natural  state  contains  elements poisonous to humans. As an MS, you will learn of many new foods that are not common to the United States. Some of these foods are from plants and animals that can cause severe illness and even death when consumed. Every effort is made to keep poisonous plants off a ship. But sometimes they do get aboard. Toadstools, hemlock mussels (such as those found on the West Coast  during  the  summer),  tropical  fish  (such  as toadfish, puffing fish, and certain members of the jack fish family), and in tropical waters, at certain seasons of the year, barracuda can cause poisoning and death. Some  types  of  mushrooms  also  contain  natural  poisons. Only an expert can decide whether or not a certain mushroom is fit to eat. The safest rule is to never use unfamiliar  foods  unless  your  medical  officer  approves their use. Chemical   Food   Poisoning.   Some   food-borne illnesses are caused by chemical poisons. In the case of chemical food poisoning, the poisons are introduced into  the  food  accidentally.  The  following  types  of chemical  poisoning  may  be  experienced  in  foodservice operations. Antimony  Poisoning Antimony  poisoning  is  caused  by  eating  food cooked in poorly coated or chipped enameled cooking utensils. Cadmium  Poisoning Cadmium  poisoning  may  take  place  if  chilled  acid foods  or  drinks  are  allowed  to  stand  in  cadmium-plated metal containers before they are served. Illness may strike  10  to  15  minutes  after  the  food  is  eaten. Lemonade, fruit punch, tomatoes, raspberry gelatin dessert,  and  tea  containing  lemon  juice  can  be contaminated by cadmium. Also, ice trays and metal pitchers  plated  with  cadmium  can  cause  chemical poisoning  when  filled  with  cold  acid  foods. Cyanide  Poisoning Cyanide  poisoning  may  result  if  silverware  is  not properly  washed  and  sanitized  after  detarnishing. 1-1

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