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Active Dry Yeast
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Fermentation - 14164_181
combination-type  baking  powder  that  contains  the acids   sodium   aluminum   sulphate   (S.A.S.)   and orthophosphate  plus  sodium  bicarbonate  and  a cornstarch  filler. This  type  of  baking  powder  is moderately double acting; one constituent acts in the batter, while the other does not act until it is heated in the oven. Baking powder is generally preferred over baking soda because it is more reliable. General  Breadmaking Procedures The  processes  described  next  include  not  only  the steps that you, the baker, perform, but also the processes that take place within the dough as a result of your action. When actually preparing bread, you should always follow the steps and procedures in the Armed Forces Recipe Service  (AFRS). MIXING.— After you select and weigh or measure the necessary ingredients, the next important step is mixing. Dough may be mixed by hand, but an electric mixer  or  a  bread-dough  machine  will  make  the  job easier. Dough   Temperatures   During   Mixing.— Temperature  has  a  definite  influence  on  the function  of  yeast  and  its  ability  to  condition  a dough  properly  to  produce  a  quality  bread.  The desired dough temperature (DDT) is obtained from the recipe card. The temperature of the dough can be regulated by considering  all  the  factors  that  will  influence  the temperature of the dough and then using water at a temperature that will offset the adverse temperatures. Any desired temperature of the dough when it leaves the mixer  may  be  obtained  by  a  rather  simple  calculation that first determines the friction factor (temperature rise induced by mixing) and may then be used at all times when the same mixer and the same weight of dough are used. Determine  the  friction  factor  by  competing  the following  steps: 1.  Add  the  temperature  of  the  room,  the temperature of the flour, and the temperature of the water. 2.  Multiply  the  temperature  of  the  mixed  sample dough by 3. 3.  Subtract  the  first  answer  from  the  second answer. For example: 8-4 Step 1. Temperature of room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75°F Temperature of flour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73°F Temperature of water.., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +54°F 202°F Step 2. Temperature of mixed dough . . . . . . . . . . 74°F x3 222°F Step 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   -202°F Friction factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20°F Adjusting  the  temperature  of  the  water  used  in  the dough will control the temperature of the dough. To determine  the  desired  water  temperature  you  add  the temperature of the room, the temperature of the flour, and the friction factor and subtract this total from the DDT multiplied by 3. You will then have the desired water temperature. For example: Step 1. Temperature of room. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75°F Temperature of flour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73°F Friction  factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +20°F 168°F Step  2.  80°F  (DDT)  x  3 240°F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -168°F Desired water temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72°F The  individual  recipe  will  indicate  the  temperature of  the  water  to  be  used  in  the  mixing  process,  By following the procedures just discussed, and using a thermometer to assure the proper temperature of water being used, the final mixed dough temperature will be that which was desired. Mixing   Operation.—   The   mixing   operation accomplishes two functions. First, thorough mixing distributes the ingredients evenly. Secondly, it stretches the  dough  until  the  gluten  is  fully  developed  and distributed. In the early stages of the mixing process, water wets the flour and the dry ingredients. At this stage, the dough will be rather wet and lumpy. As the mixing progresses, the flour continues to take up liquid and the dough  becomes  moderately  firm. When you are using high-speed mixers, the dough will  become  firm  after  several  minutes  of  mixing,  hut the  dough  has  no  stretching  characteristic.  As  mixing continues, the dough begins to bond and becomes more elastic. The  lumpiness  disappears  and  the  dough becomes more firm as the flour picks up more moisture. At this stage, the dough is rather sticky and sticks to the mixer bowl quite easily. Next, the dough becomes less

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