Yeast-raised doughnuts are neither dispensed from
a machine into frying fat nor mechanically cut because
they require a short proofing period.
FRYING. Recommended temperature of the fat
is 375°F for raised doughnuts. Make certain the correct
temperature is used because doughnuts will soak up fat
that is too cool and will brown before they are done if
fat is too hot. To allow for expansion of dough and
turning room, place cut doughnuts carefully in fry
baskets one-half inch apart and lower into hot fat.
Normal fat absorption should be 2 to 3 ounces per
dozen. This absorption is both desirable and necessary
to create high-quality products. Grease soaking is
undesirable, however, and is caused principally by
undermining of dough, misshapen cuts and rough
surfaces, and poor-quality fat used in the frying process.
A fat-soaked doughnut is heavy, greasy tasting, and
stales very rapidly.
Doughnuts removed from the fat should be
thoroughly drained on racks or absorbent paper and
cooled to 160°F if glazed. If topped with coatings,
doughnuts should be cooled to 72°F (room
FILLINGS AND FINISHES
Fillings made from fruits such as cherries,
pineapple, and prunes, almond paste, cream fillings, or
sugar and spice mixtures may be used to fill coffee
cakes, sweet dough, and Danish pastry. Most everyone
prefers a coating or finish of one type or another on
sweet rolls, coffee cakes, doughnuts, and other pastries.
An endless combination of ingredients can be used for
this purpose. The following are the most commonly used
Dry coatings such as cinnamon-sugar filling,
powdered sugar, or granulated sugar
Glazes such as vanilla or butterscotch for
doughnuts and syrup or syrup-fruit glazes for
sweet rolls and coffee cakes
Washes for breads, rolls, and coffee cakes
The dry coatings are used most often on cake
doughnuts. Using dry sugar coatings is somewhat more
complicated than merely shaking together a properly
cooled fried cake doughnut and sugar in a paper bag.
Sugar coating will shed off rapidly from an
overcooked, dry doughnut. On the other hand, a sugared
doughnut appearing moist on the surface may be an
undercooked doughnut. If the sugar melts or
disappears, the doughnut is too moist. This condition is
known in the baking industry as sweating. Follow the
AFRS for preparing cake doughnuts. Cake doughnuts
should be cooled before being sugared.
A vanilla glaze is usually applied to yeast-raised
doughnuts, but cake doughnuts also may be glazed.
Other glazes incorporating imitation maple, rum,
brandy, cherry, almond, and black walnut flavoring may
Doughnut glazing is somewhat more complicated
than the sugaring process because the glaze is much less
stable, particularly at warm temperatures.
should be sufficiently thin to flow and to allow the
excess to roll off.
Yeast doughnuts should not be less than 160°F when
glaze is applied. Taken from 375°F deep fat, a doughnut
will cool to the proper temperature in about 1 to 2
minutes. Doughnuts should be submerged into the glaze
and drained on a wire screen until the glaze is set. Air
circulation around the entire doughnut is important in
setting the glaze.
Syrup glazes are usually applied to rolls or coffee
cakes. A syrup glaze is prepared from a mixture of
blended syrup and water that is boiled for 5 minutes. For
variation, a fruit juice or pureed fruit, sugar, and syrup
mixture can be prepared. Brush syrup glazes over hot
baked coffee cakes and sweet rolls.
Washes are applied to sweet doughs before baking
and are used in addition to glazes or toppings in many
products. They are used also on pastry, some quick
breads, yeast bread (rolls and buns), and bar cookies.
Washes serve two functions: (1) to wash off excess
flour and facilitate browning and (2) to provide a surface
to help added toppings such as nuts, fruits, poppy or
sesame seeds, or onions stick to the products. Any one
of the following ingredients maybe used individual y or
butter, cornstarch, whole eggs, and egg