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Baking Powder Biscuits - 14164_190
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Cakes
Yeast-raised  doughnuts  are  neither  dispensed  from a machine into frying fat nor mechanically cut because they require a short proofing period. FRYING.— Recommended  temperature  of  the  fat is 375°F for raised doughnuts. Make certain the correct temperature  is  used  because  doughnuts  will  soak  up  fat that is too cool and will brown before they are done if fat is too hot. To allow for expansion of dough and turning  room,  place  cut  doughnuts  carefully  in  fry baskets one-half inch apart and lower into hot fat. Normal fat absorption should be 2 to 3 ounces per dozen. This absorption is both desirable and necessary to  create  high-quality  products.  Grease  soaking  is undesirable,  however,  and  is  caused  principally  by undermining  of  dough,  misshapen  cuts  and  rough surfaces, and poor-quality fat used in the frying process. A fat-soaked doughnut is heavy, greasy tasting, and stales very rapidly. Doughnuts  removed  from  the  fat  should  be thoroughly drained on racks or absorbent paper and cooled  to  160°F  if  glazed.  If  topped  with  coatings, doughnuts   should   be   cooled   to   72°F   (room temperature). FILLINGS AND FINISHES Fillings  made  from  fruits  such  as  cherries, pineapple, and prunes, almond paste, cream fillings, or sugar and spice mixtures may be used to fill coffee cakes, sweet dough, and Danish pastry. Most everyone prefers a coating or finish of one type or another on sweet  rolls,  coffee  cakes,  doughnuts,  and  other  pastries. An endless combination of ingredients can be used for this purpose. The following are the most commonly used combinations: Dry  coatings  such  as  cinnamon-sugar  filling, powdered  sugar,  or  granulated  sugar Glazes  such  as  vanilla  or  butterscotch  for doughnuts and syrup or syrup-fruit glazes for sweet  rolls  and  coffee  cakes Washes for breads, rolls, and coffee cakes Toppings Dry  Coatings The  dry  coatings  are  used  most  often  on  cake doughnuts.  Using  dry  sugar  coatings  is  somewhat  more complicated  than  merely  shaking  together  a  properly cooled fried cake doughnut and sugar in a paper bag. 8-15 Sugar   coating   will   shed   off   rapidly   from   an overcooked, dry doughnut. On the other hand, a sugared doughnut appearing moist on the surface may be an undercooked  doughnut.  If  the  sugar  melts  or disappears,  the  doughnut  is  too  moist.  This  condition  is known in the baking industry as sweating. Follow the AFRS  for  preparing  cake  doughnuts.  Cake  doughnuts should  be  cooled  before  being  sugared. Glazes A vanilla glaze is usually applied to yeast-raised doughnuts, but cake doughnuts also may be glazed. Other  glazes  incorporating  imitation  maple,  rum, brandy, cherry, almond, and black walnut flavoring may be used. Doughnut  glazing  is  somewhat  more  complicated than the sugaring process because the glaze is much less stable, particularly at warm temperatures. Glazes should be sufficiently thin to flow and to allow the excess  to  roll  off. Yeast doughnuts should not be less than 160°F when glaze is applied. Taken from 375°F deep fat, a doughnut will cool to the proper temperature in about 1 to 2 minutes. Doughnuts should be submerged into the glaze and drained on a wire screen until the glaze is set. Air circulation around the entire doughnut is important in setting the glaze. Syrup  glazes  are  usually  applied  to  rolls  or  coffee cakes. A syrup glaze is prepared from a mixture of blended syrup and water that is boiled for 5 minutes. For variation, a fruit juice or pureed fruit, sugar, and syrup mixture can be prepared. Brush syrup glazes over hot baked coffee cakes and sweet rolls. Washes Washes are applied to sweet doughs before baking and are used in addition to glazes or toppings in many products. They are used also on pastry, some quick breads, yeast bread (rolls and buns), and bar cookies. Washes serve two functions: (1) to wash off excess flour and facilitate browning and (2) to provide a surface to help added toppings such as nuts, fruits, poppy or sesame seeds, or onions stick to the products. Any one of the following ingredients maybe used individual y or in  combination: whites. butter, cornstarch, whole eggs, and egg

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