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Zinc  Poisoning Zinc poisoning in food is rare. It may occur when acid  foods  are  cooked  in  galvanized  iron  kettles. Outbreaks have occurred when apples have been cooked in this type of kettle. Lead and Arsenic Poisonings Lead  and  arsenic  sometimes  used  to  spray vegetables may cause these foods to become poisonous. Be  sure  all  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  are  thoroughly washed before you cook them, or before they are eaten raw. Lead poisoning may also result from the ingestion of food or water that has been in contact with lead pipes, lead-plated equipment, and lead-soldered pots and pans. Lead is a cumulative poison; the accumulation of small doses in the body will eventually cause chronic lead poisoning. Fluoride Poisoning Fluoride poisoning is caused by sodium fluoride, a substance often used to get rid of cockroaches. It is a white  powder  that  can  be  easily  mistaken  for  powdered milk.  Keep  all  containers  of  such  poison  out  of  the galley  and  bakeshop. Methyl  Chloride  Poisoning Methyl  chloride  poisoning  is  caused  by  leaking mechanical  refrigerators. Check your equipment for such  leaks  and  request  scheduled  planned  maintenance service  (PMS)  from  the  engineering  division  to  detect faulty  equipment. FOOD  INTOXICATION This  type  of  illness  is  caused  by  toxins.  Under favorable  conditions  certain  bacteria  produce  chemical compounds called toxins, which, if ingested, cause food intoxication.  Staphylococcus  is  the  most  commonly reported  food  intoxication. Staphylococcus The staphylococcus germ is found in the throat, on the skin in pimples and boils, and in great abundance in the  postnasal  drip  of  people  recovering  from  colds. Consequently,  the  most  prevalent  carrier  of  food intoxication  is  foodservice  personnel.  People  with  any of these symptoms must not be allowed to work in food preparation spaces in any capacity. Foods   most   associated   with   outbreaks   of staphylococcus  are  pork  products  and  fowl.  Ham  is  also susceptible  to  staphylococcus  poisoning  and  must  not be sliced too far in advance of serving unless properly refrigerated. Other  foods  commonly  involved  are  potted  meats, fish,  cheese,  milk  products  (including  cream-  and custard-filled pastries), and potato and macaroni salads. Foods  can  contain  sufficient  toxin  to  cause  food poisoning  and  yet  have  no  odor  of  spoilage  and  no abnormal  taste. Even when food has been properly refrigerated, it can become contaminated by bacteria while it is being prepared or while it is standing in the galley before it is served. Botulism Botulism is a second type of food intoxication. This disease, usually fatal, is caused by the toxin produced by  the  rod-shaped  bacterium  called  clostridium botulinum. Botulinum organisms are found in the soil and gain access to foods through contact with soil, dust, and  possibly  water. The  foods  most  often  responsible  for  botulism  are either   canned   or   fermented   foods   in   which   the preserving process has not succeeded in destroying the bacteria  in  the  food. The  botulinum  grows  and multiplies in an airtight container. However, when cans are damaged, leak, bulge, or are sprung, the contents are presumed  to  be  unsafe. The  botulinum  organisms  sometimes  produce  a  gas and cheesy odor in food, but the absence of these signs does not necessarily mean that the bacteria are not present. FOOD INFECTION This   type   of   food   illness   is   caused   by microorganisms  such  as  the  salmonella,  shigella,  and clostridium  species  and  the  streptococcus,  bacillus,  and typhoid fever bacteria. A  large  percentage  of  food infections are transmitted by foods that have been allowed  to  remain  at  room  temperature  for  a  prolonged period of time. The great majority of outbreaks of food infection is caused  by  meat  (poultry,  particularly  turkey)  and  meat mixtures. For this reason, poultry dressing should not be served as a leftover. Other foods that may be involved are custards, milk cream, ice cream, seafood, meat, eggs,  meat  products,  shellfish,  salads,  mayonnaise, 1-2

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