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Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
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l Food items that will not be served immediately should be handled in the following manner: Place in shallow pans (food depth not more than 3 inches) and cover Label the product with the time and date of preparation, name of product and person storing product, and expiration date of product Then  immediately  refrigerate  at  temperatures below 40°F Leftovers  should  be  avoided  if  possible.  However, if  unavoidable,  they  should  be  handled  in  the  manner just described. NOTE: Do  not  hold  any  hand-prepared  item  as a leftover. FOOD   PREPARATION   AREAS.–   Food preparation areas must be monitored to ensure proper ventilation.  Proper  ventilation  allows  for  a  net  flow  of air into the spaces reducing excessive temperatures that may cause heat stress. Temperatures in foodservice spaces   should   not   exceed   78°F.   For   additional information on heat stress monitoring, see chapter 3 of the  NAVMED  P-5010. STORAGE  SPACES.–  Storage spaces must be monitored to prevent the deterioration of perishable food  items  resulting  from  improper  temperatures. The  following  are  causes  of  deterioration  of perishable  food  items: . Bacteria, yeasts, and molds. They are the primary causes  of  spoilage.  Usually  an  objectional  odor  indicates spoilage  by  bacteria.  Yeast  induces  spoilage  for  items  of high sugar content, particularly if stored between 77°F and 90°F. Mold can be detected by visible threadlike filaments growing on the surface of food items. . Age. All foodstuffs will spoil if kept in storage too  long,  This  type  of  spoilage  is  prevented  by  issuing the oldest items first. Storerooms  for  semiperishable  items  should  be clean, cool, dry, lighted, and well ventilated. You   must   maintain   temperature   logs   for   all refrigerated  spaces.  Temperatures  of  bulk  refrigerated spaces  must  be  taken  from  thermometers  inside  each space  at  least  twice  daily.  These  temperatures  are recorded in a log and maintained by the jack-of-the-dust. The engineering department must maintain a separate log  with  temperatures  taken  from  remote  sensors. Temperature problems should be immediately reported to the FSO. It is important that fresh and frozen food items should be stored in three separate food categories. The following  are  the  categories  and  associated requirements  for  proper  temperature  maintenance: .  Fresh  fruit  and  vegetables.  Air  circulation  is important–containers should be raised off the deck. This is accomplished b y using pallets. The use of a fan helps maintain air circulation in all parts of the room. Proper temperatures must be maintained at 32°F to 35°F. Humidity should be from 85 to 95 percent. . Dairy products and eggs. Air circulation maybe accomplished for these items by storing on pallets that are raised off the deck. Additionally, there should be a fan  capable  of  keeping  the  air  circulating.  Proper temperatures must be maintained at 32°F to 34°F. . Meat and other frozen products should not be stored on bare decks. The use of pallets to raise items off the deck permits air to circulate under the items, Temperatures for frozen products must be maintained at 0°F or below. Acceptable  temperature  ranges  for  chilled  and frozen storage or holding spaces are as follows: l l l l l Dairy: 32°F to 34°F Reach-in refrigerators: 34°F to 44°F Chill and vegetables: 33°F to 36°F Thaw box: 36°F to 38°F Freezers: 0°F or below There should be no frost buildup on the chill or freeze box coils. The chill and freeze boxes should be defrosted  and  cleaned  regularly.  This  is  best accomplished  when  provisions  are  low  and  just  before loading  out. The engineering department should be informed when a major onload of stores is going to take place. This allows them to plan ahead and secure the boxes affected. This will prevent high or unnecessary loads on the chill or freeze unit and frost buildup during the loading evolution. Hot gassing operations to defrost may even be planned during this time. Remember to start the reefer units up immediately after the onload and have  a  qualified  person  standing  by  to  monitor  the  first couple hours of reefer operation. EQUIPMENT.–     Equipment   such   as   ovens, griddles,   fryers,   and   dishwashing   and   sanitizing equipment should be calibrated periodically. This is 13-23

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