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Cream or White Sauce
Soups Soup  is  a  tasty,  popular  food.  It  is  nutritious, wholesome,  and  stimulates  the  appetite.  Soup  should be served at least once a day in cold weather, if practical, and at least every few days regardless of the weather. A key rule in serving soup is that it be served as hot as possible. GALLEY-PREPARED SOUPS.— There are four basic kinds of soup: 1. 2. 3. 4. Light  soups  are  made  from  clear,  unthickened stock. Heavy soups are made from stock vegetables, rice, or pasta such as noodles, macaroni, and spaghetti. Cream  soups  are  made  with  milk,  stock,  or vegetables  and  lightly  thickened.  They  should be heated to serving temperature, but never allowed  to  boil. Chowders  are  made  with  fish,  shellfish,  or vegetables. There  are  three  basic  soup  ingredients:  stock vegetables, and thickeners. These basic ingredients are discussed   next. Stock.—  Stock is made by cooking meat bones, poultry   bones   and   trimmings,   vegetables,   and seasonings in water. Alternately, it is made by using dehydrated soup and gravy bases, which saves time, labor, and space. These various bases contain salt; therefore,  the  amount  of  salt  added  should  be determined  by  careful  tasting  during  the  cooking process. The standard stock items, instant beef, chicken, or ham soup and gravy base, may be reconstituted for use in any soup recipe. These powdered bases are seasoned and when they are reconstituted in boiling water they have  the  characteristic  flavor  of  beef,  ham,  or  chicken broth.  The  proportions  that  should  be  used  to reconstitute  these  bases  are  included  in  the  A (miscellaneous)  section  of  the  AFRS. Vegetables.— The  vegetables  most  commonly  used for soups are celery, carrots, peas, beans, onions, green peppers, and tomatoes. Vegetables are cut into small cubes, or into matchlike strips that are called julienne. Vegetables  used  in  soups  should  be  cooked  according  to the instructions given in the AFRS for soup. Thickeners.— Soups are thickened by adding a roux or a paste. A roux is a mixture of fat and flour. A cold, light roux is usually added to soups that are to be thickened. In onion soup, for example, the cold roux is stirred into the hot soup stock and the soup is cooked until no taste of raw starch remains. Roux may be prepared  ahead  of  time  and  refrigerated.  A  roux  maybe prepared by two methods: the cold roux method or the warm   roux   method.   Cold   roux   is   prepared   by combining flour with liquid fat, then stirring until a smooth paste is formed. In the warm roux method the fat is first melted over low heat and then the flour is added. A paste is prepared by whipping flour or cornstarch into a cold liquid (usually water) and then adding it to hot liquid that is cooked until it thickens. In the final step  of  preparing  bean  soup,  for  example,  a  flour  and water paste is stirred into the soup that is then cooked for  10  minutes. GALLEY PREPARED SOUPS.— The individual recipe in the soup section of the AFRS specifies the types and amounts of seasonings that should be used. When meat or chicken stock is made, the flavor from the ingredients used is very concentrated; therefore, it is essential  to  use  accurate  amounts  of  the  ingredients. Just before the soup is to be served, check it again for proper seasoning. It is better to add more seasoning to the stock or soup a short time before it is served, rather than have a soup so highly seasoned it is unpalatable. If the taste check indicates that the soup is too salty, add sliced raw potatoes to the soup, bring soup to a simmer for  a  few  minutes,  then  remove  the  potatoes. COMMERCIALLY   PREPARED   SOUPS.— Dehydrated, instant, condensed, and ready-to-serve soups are not only easy to prepare but they are also time- and  space-savers. Dehydrated soups such as chicken noodle, green pea,  and  tomato  vegetable  are  prepared  by  merely adding the specified amount of boiling water. Then the mixture is covered and allowed to simmer for the length of time specified on the container. The finished product is similar in appearance and flavor to the same type of soup made with raw food items. Sauces Sauces add to the appearance and flavor of food, but they  should  never  be  overpowering.  Sauces  should  be handled   carefully   to   avoid   contamination   and food-borne illness. Store in a chill space and never hold them longer than 4 cumulative hours at temperatures between 40°F and 140°F. 5-23

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