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knife must go next to the plate. Never forcibly tighten the adjustment ring on the chopping end, but tighten it snugly. Excess pressure will wear the chopper parts. Start the motor, then feed the material into the chopper. Turn the motor off after the material is ground. Feed  the  material  into  the  machine  with  the  tools intended  for  that  purpose—never  with  your  hands. Care  and  Cleaning After meat has been chopped, take the grinder apart and wash each part thoroughly with soap and water, rinse with hot water (170°F), and allow to air dry. Do not allow food to dry on the surfaces of the chopper before you wash it. A grinder can be a breeding place for bacteria that might cause food poisoning. Great care should be exercised in keeping the parts of the grinder free from contamination. Knives and plates should be sharpened before they get   dull,   but   do   not   attempt   this   yourself.   The engineering department should be consulted. It is a good idea to keep the same knife and plate together as they wear to fit each other. Tie them together with a cord after they are used so they will not be mislaid. Keep the motor dry. Do not grind juicy foods, such as onions, because the juice will be forced back into the gear  housing,  causing  a  loss  of  oil  and  consequent wearing of gears. If you are grinding foods such as crackers, grind a very small amount at a time or the machine will jam. When the chopper is hot, do not run raw meat through it. Remember that bits of bones can break the warm gears and knives. MEAT  TENDERIZER The meat tenderizer is used to tenderize all sorts of tough meats. The machine is about 20 inches long and about 1 foot wide. To operate, turn the motor on, insert the meat to be tenderized into the opening at the top of the machine. The meat will pass through two sets of revolving rollers that contain many small blades and will be made tender. If further tenderizing is required, insert the meat again after first giving it a one-quarter turn (90 degrees). Meat-tenderizing machines are equipped with a safety device that automatically stops the machine when the cover (shield) is raised. Never attempt to raise the top with the machine running or to operate the machine with the cover raised because of the danger of catching your fingers in the machine. Take the machine apart and clean it after each use. Oil the parts often. 4-18 KNIVES Many  different  sizes  and  shapes  of  knives  are required  for  meat-cutting  jobs.  You  must  understand which knife to use for each job and make sure to use it for the job it was intended. You should never use the thin-bladed knife that is designed for carving cooked meats to bone a roast. It is quicker and more efficient to use the boning knife that has a stiff, narrow, short blade to cut close around bones. The knives with the long, wide blades are used to cut steaks and roasts before they  are  cooked. Sharpening  Knives To get the most use out of the knives in the galley, they must be sharp. A dull knife is a hazard and makes extra work for you. A boning knife has a comparatively narrow bevel and will stand more hard use than a steak knife that has a wide bevel and a thin edge. But no matter what tool you use, you cannot do a good job unless the tool is sharp. The butcher’s steel is used only to keep the edges of knives straight and not to sharpen them. Nor should you sharpen knives on a power- or hand-driven stone, since this removes the temper from the cutting edge. The best things to use for sharpening are a waterstone and a carborundum oilstone. If you use the entire stone when sharpening tools the stone will not hollow out at any one point. Draw the full blade, from heel to tip, across the length of the stone and then turn the knife over and pull it back from the opposite end of the  stone.  This  sharpens  the  knife  evenly  and  smoothly and causes the stone to wear uniformly. Always clean the blade and handle thoroughly after sharpening. Steeling In  steeling,  there  is  a  definite  technique.  Specific types of steels should be used to true certain edges. Never use a rough steel. A smooth steel should be used to keep the blade in perfect condition and to maintain a keen edge. The steel should have good magnetism in order  to  hold  steel  particles.  The  easiest  and  most effective methods of steeling a knife are as follows: . Hold the steel firmly in the left hand, thumb on the top of the handle under the guard, with the point upward  and  slightly  away  from  the  body. . Place the heel of the blade against the top side of the tip of the steel. The steel and the blade should meet at an angle of about 25 degrees. . With a quick swinging motion bring the blade down across the steel toward the left hand. This should pass the entire edge lightly over the steel.

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