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Spoiled or Damaged Food Products
can ruin both the taste and the appearance of food as well as increase the risks of food-borne disease. HOT FOODS.—  The  holding  temperature  of  hot foods  held  on  a  serving  line  should  be  maintained between 180°F and 200°F. COLD FOODS.— Keep cold foods such as salads, potato  salad  combinations,  and  ham  plates  cold  by setting them on ice or on refrigerated salad bar units maintained  between  34°F  and  40°F. BEVERAGES.— Beverages  should  be  served  hot or cold as applicable. As with food, the quality depends on  proper  preparation,  holding,  and  dispensing. Leftovers When leftovers or warm foods are chilled, care must be taken to ensure prompt and thorough chilling (40°F or below) to the center of the food mass. Foods that are to be refrigerated should be placed in shallow pans to a depth of not more than 3 inches and must be covered with lids or waxed paper. Do not put leftovers in large, deep pans as chilling may take so long to get to the center of the food mass that sufficient time is allowed for the growth of harmful bacteria and development of toxins. Guard against any procedure that might delay cooling. Place  foods  to  be  chilled  in  the  chill  box  immediately. Leftover food must not be saved for more than 36 hours. Freezing  of  leftovers  is  prohibited.  Foods  composed  of ingredients that have been peeled, sliced, or diced by hand after cooking must never be used as leftovers since the 4-hour limit between temperatures of 40°F and 140°F is usually taken up in preparing, chilling, and serving the food. To prevent miscalculations in the length  of  time  leftovers  have  been  stored,  all  leftovers must be labeled with the date and time of preparation. Frozen Foods Frozen foods should be thawed in the refrigerator. Freezing  breaks  down  tissue  and,  therefore,  foods  can be  invaded  by  germs  more  rapidly.  Once  foods  are frozen and then thawed, they must not be refrozen. If not eaten, they should be stored under 40°F. Milk and Milk Products Milk and milk products and other protein foods are frequent  offenders  in  transmitting  infectious  diseases  to man because of their rapid rate of perishability. Strict surveillance of all handling procedures from cow to man is necessary to prevent contamination and possible milk-borne   diseases. When  procured  by  Navy  and  Marine  Corps activities, milk and milk products must conform in all respects  to  either  federal  or  military  specifications.  The perishability of such products is a most important factor, thus strict compliance with all sanitary requirements is mandatory. Delivery  inspections  of  dairy  products  are  normally conducted  by  personnel  attached  to  the  receiving activities.  These  inspectors  must  make  sure  milk  and milk products are from approved sources and delivered in  containers  that  are  in  good  condition  and  properly sealed. They must make sure the temperature of the product on delivery is 40°F or less or follows the current Defense Personnel Support Center (DPSC) contract. Of prime importance to medical and foodservice personnel   is   the   maintenance   of   recommended temperatures  in  storing  (40°F  or  less),  dispensing (32°F-40°F), and enforcing approved sanitary methods in the handling of such products. Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  should  be  washed thoroughly under running water to remove any particles of dirt or to remove poisonous insect sprays. Green vegetables of uncertain origin should be suspected of being  contaminated  with  pathogenic  organisms.  They should be chemically sanitized by immersion for at least 15 minutes in a 100-ppm (parts per million) available chlorine solution, or 30 minutes in a 50-ppm available chlorine  solution,  or  other  approved  method.  Then  they should be thoroughly rinsed with potable water before they are cooked or served. Head items such as lettuce, cabbage, or celery must be broken apart before they are sanitized. Canned Products Canned foods appearance  should that appear abnormal in odor or never be eaten or even tasted, but should  be  discarded.  When  you  are  inspecting  canned meats, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruit, and juices, the following  factors  should  be  considered. CAN LABELS.— Check to make sure contents and processing date are stamped on the end of the container or on the label. CAN   EXTERIOR.—   The  exterior  of  the  can should be examined for general appearance, dents, swelling, rust, and pinholes. Cans having severe dents that cross either the side or end seams or that crinkle the metal to a point similar to those depicted in figures 1-3, 1-10

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