. 1 ounce of ready-to-eat cereal
NUTRITIVE VALUE. These whole grain or
enriched foods are important sources of B vitamins and
iron. They also provide protein and are a major source
of this nutrient in vegetarian diets. Additionally, they
contribute magnesium, folacin, and fiber.
Most breakfast cereals are fortified at levels higher
than those occurring in natural whole grain. In fact,
some fortification adds vitamins not normally found in
cereals (namely, vitamins A, B12, C, and D). However,
even these cereals (if refined) and other refined products
(enriched or not) maybe low in some other vitamins and
This is because these nutrients are
partially removed from the whole grain in the milling
process and not replaced.
Thus, it is a good idea to
include some less refined or whole grain products in
Vegetables are naturally low in fat and contain no
cholesterol. They provide vitamins such as vitamins A,
C, and folate, and minerals such as iron and magnesium.
Vegetables also provide fiber. Unlike the traditional
basic four, the food pyramid separates vegetables and
fruits into individual groups to highlight how important
it is to get adequate amounts of both.
Because vegetables are so important, GM menus
should offer two hot vegetables at both lunch and dinner
meals whenever possible. This gives the patrons a
choice they will enjoy and improves the nutritional
profile of the meal. You should note that the portion size
of cooked vegetables was increased to 3/4 cup in the
Armed Forces Recipe Service, NAVSUP P-7, in
A person needs 3 to 5 servings daily, depending on
their activity level.
You should include one good
vitamin C source each day. Also include deep yellow or
dark green vegetables (for vitamin A) and unpeeled
vegetables, especially those with edible seeds (for fiber).
WHAT IS A SERVING? It includes all
vegetables. You should count the following as a serving
from the vegetable group:
1 cup of raw leafy vegetables
1/2 cup of other vegetables that are cooked or
3/4 cup of vegetable or tomato juice
NUTRITIVE VALUE. Different types of
vegetables provide different nutrients; therefore, your
menu should feature a variety of vegetables. Dark green
and deep yellow vegetables are good sources of vitamin
A. Most dark green vegetables, if not overcooked, are
also reliable sources of vitamin C. They are also valued
for providing riboflavin, folacin, iron, and magnesium.
Certain greens-collard, kale, mustard, turnip, and
dandelion-provide calcium. Nearly all vegetables are
low in fat, and none contain cholesterol.
Most fruits are low in fat and free of cholesterol.
Fruits and fruit juices provide important amounts of
vitamin A and potassium. The food pyramid suggests a
person receive 2 to 4 servings daily from this group,
depending on their activity level.
WHAT IS A SERVING? It includes all fruits.
You should count the following as examples of a serving
from the fruit group:
. A medium apple, orange, or banana.
. 1/2 cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit.
1/2 cup of fruit juice.
You should only count
100-percent fruit juice as fruit.
NUTRITIVE VALUE. Any kind of fruit fits into
a low-fat diet. Nearly all fruits are low in fat, and none
contain cholesterol. This group is also important for its
contribution of vitamins A and C and fiber. As with
vegetables, different types of fruits provide different
nutrients. Reliable sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits
lemons), melons, and berries.
Fruits with skin have more fiber.
Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group
Milk products provide protein, vitamins, and
minerals as well as fat, cholesterol, and calories. Milk
yogurt, and cheese are the best sources of calcium. The
food pyramid suggests 2 to 3 daily servings of milk,
yogurt, or cheese each day, depending on a persons
Most people only need 2 servings.
However, 3 servings are suggested for pregnant women,
nursing mothers, teenagers, and young adults to age 24.
Young adults should continue to have 3 servings of the
milk group until age 24. This is to ensure a calcium
intake that allows the development of peak bone mass
during the formative years.
WHAT IS A SERVING? It includes milk in any
form such as whole, skim, low-fat, evaporated,