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Types of Cookies - 14164_196
Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Making Crusts for One-Crust Pies - 14164_198
Cookie Mix For  convenience  in  preparation,  oatmeal  cookie  mix is authorized throughout the Navy. The mix is packaged in No. 10 cans. One can (5 pounds) of mix yields 100 cookies. Preparation is simple. The mix is combined with water and the dough may be dropped, rolled, or sliced. A variety of cookies can be prepared from the basic  mix.  Instructions  for  raisin,  date,  nut,  chocolate chip,  and  applesauce  variations  are  printed  on  the container. PIES A successful pie should have a tender crust. To make  sure  the  piecrust  is  tender  the  proper  ingredients must be used and the dough should be carefully mixed. If   properly   made,   the   standard   piecrust   has outstanding characteristics. In appearance, it will be golden  brown  with  a  rough  surface  that  appears blistered. The texture will be flaky or mealy depending upon the method used to combine the ingredients. It should be tender enough to cut easily, but not so tender that it breaks or crumbles. The flavor should be delicate and  pleasing. Piecrust Ingredients Piecrusts  are  made  from  flour,  shortening,  water, and salt. FLOUR.— General-purpose  flour  should  be  used  to make piecrust as it produces pie dough that is easy to handle and pan. Do not use bread flour. It will cause tough  pastry. SHORTENING.—  General-purpose  shortening compound should be used as it makes the crust flaky and tender.  Rancid  shortening  or  shortening  that  has absorbed other odors causes off-flavors in piecrust and should  never  be  used. The  shortening  should  be approximately 60°F when ready for mixing and just soft enough to blend with the other ingredients. At 60°F, the shortening  blends  well  into  the  flour  while  giving firmness so that a flaky piecrust is produced. Bakery emulsifier  shortening,  melted  shortening,  or  salad  oil should not be used as they will cause the dough to be oily  and  hard  to  handle  and  will  not  produce  flaky piecrusts. WATER— The quantity of water and the method of mixing it with the other ingredients are the most important factors in making a tender piecrust. The water should be cold (40°F to 50°F). The amount of water should be sufficient to make a dough that forms a ball that does not crumble, but also is not sticky when rolled out. Too much water will cause toughness. SALT.—  Salt  aids  in  binding  the  ingredients together  and  enhances  the  flavors  of  the  other ingredients. Mixing The flour and shortening should be mixed together until they form very small particles and are granular in appearance. When mixing by hand, the water should be added  gradually  until  the  dough  reaches  the  right consistency—neither sticky nor crumbly. When you are machine mixing, the water is added all at once and mixed just until the dough is made. Rolling the Dough Divide the mixed dough into three sections (about 5 pounds 3 ounces each) and chill for at least 1 hour. The  chilled  dough  will  be  easier  to  handle.  When  you are rolling the dough, handle it as little as possible, The pastry board or workbench and rolling pin should be dusted lightly with flour to prevent the dough from sticking. Using a dough divider, cut the dough sections into 7-ounce pieces for top crusts and 7 1/2-ounce pieces for  bottom  crusts  when  making  two-crust  pies.  For one-crust pies, 7 1/2-ounce pieces should be used. Lightly dust each piece of dough with flour and flatten the pieces gently with the palm of the hand before rolling.  Use  quick  strokes  and  roll  from  the  center toward the edge to forma circle about 1 inch larger than the pan and about one-eighth inch thick. If the dough is stretched or forced, it will shrink back during baking. Pie  dough  pieces  may  be  placed  into  a  pie  rolling machine, if available. The pie dough will be rolled out automatically  into  a  circular  shape  and  ready  for panning.  Do  not  grease  pie  pans.  The  dough  has enough shortening to keep the crust from sticking. Fold the circle of dough in half and place it in the pan, then unfold it to fit smoothly in the pan. Make sure to fit the dough carefully into the pan so that it is flat and air  pockets  cannot  form  between  the  pan  and  dough. Types  of  Pies The types of pies prepared in the GM are one-crust (custard   type),   one-crust   (prebaked   shell),   and double-crust   pies. 8-21

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